1.2 selecting the executives, relationship between levels of

1.2       Summaryof Methods in Explaining Government Image There are severalmethods used in both field of academia and practice to explain the governmentimage. Among these explanation methods are the systems of governance, methodsof selecting the executives, relationship between levels of government, mediarelation, trust, nation-branding and consonance. Systems of governance relateto “the processes of interactions and decision-making among the actors involvedin a collective problem that lead to the creation, reinforcement, orreproduction of social norms and institutions” (Hufty, 2011). A variety ofentities (known generically as governing bodies) can govern. The most formal isa government, a body whose sole responsibility and authority is to make bindingdecisions in a given geopolitical system such as state by establishing laws.

Whendiscussing governance in particular nation or state, the quality of governancewithin is often compared to standards set by global bodies such as UnitedNations, continental and regional bodies. Actually, good governance relates toconsistent management, cohesive policies, guidance, processes and rightdecisions for a given area of responsibility, and proper oversight andaccountability. “Good governance” implies that mechanisms function in a waythat allows the executive to respect the rights and interest of the people inspirit of democracy. This method has become a globally accepted standard indetermining and explaining government image of a country.

Anything short ofthese measures places the government image of that country in bad light. Comparatively,the advantages of using system of nation’s governance to determine governmentimage are that, it follows the global standards which are well defined by the internationalcommunity with no distinctions irrespective of believe system, values andsocial orientations of a particular country. Disadvantage of using this methodused in determining government image is that, all the determinants aresubjective to varied interpretations depending on ideological differences.   Methodof selecting executives globally comes with competition (healthy andunhealthy), tensions, acrimonies and invitation to struggle. In any case,method of selecting nation’s executives varies from place to place. Even in themonarchy system, tensions and struggles and acrimonies are not rule out. Thismethod is used globally to assess government image.

Depending on the level oftension, acrimonies, and struggle in selecting it is either considered fair orotherwise. The government image is dented when all the elements making theprocess healthy and fair are abused and not followed. The distinction betweenthis method and others are that method of selecting executives bother on humanright issues, and far reaching implication on human lives and trade. Theadvantage of using method of selecting executives is it engages globalattention and concern. Disadvantage of this method is that it complex tointerpret and soon the new executives are selected different picture can beportrayed to international community.   Relationshipbetween levels of government has to do with separation of powers anddecentralization. This method used to explain government image varies from onepolitical administration to another.

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However, almost all politicaladministrations have executive, judicial and legislative. The level of autonomyand independence to a very large extent describe the healthy or insanitarynature of government image. The difference between this method and others isthat it affords the any assessor an opportunity to evaluate the level oftotalitarianism as well as prevailing rule of law. The advantage ofrelationship between levels of government is mainly due to its ability todetermine the level of dictatorship of executive in relation to decisionmaking. The disadvantage of the method is that it subjects to ideologicalinterpretations and governance approach.

      Withrespect to media relation, trust, nation-branding and consonance in marketing,the difference is that their interpretations are more objective thanideological subjectivity. Their analytical interpretations in the field ofmarketing can be done using either qualitatively or quantitative approach. Thedisadvantage of the method is its costs in collecting enough data from the massrespondents that will reflect the generality of the outcome. In this study,media relation, trust, nation-branding and consonance were chosen in determiningthe government image in relation to economic performance for the followingreasons, to appraise:i.                   how government image is promoted by mediarelation, ii.                 how the trust of business communityimpact on government image,iii.               how the nation branding projects thegovernment image, andiv.

               how the government image is elevated byconsonance        1.3       StudyObjectivesTheobjectives of the research include, to:·        Determine the significant statisticalinfluence government image has on the nation’s economic performance. ·        Find out the extent government imageinfluences the nation’s economic performance.·        Identify the factor elements that enhancesgovernment image in relation to marketing strategy. ·        Make recommendations as how thesegovernment image variables could be improved to enhance economic performance.

 1.4       Area of FocusPerformanceof countries globally are usually viewed from the perspective of economicswithout due consideration to other subjects interpretations. Marketing isbelieved to be a core of all business activities including governance of nationsthat can be used to determine and interpret nation’s economic performance.

Nation branding attempts to reduce the identity-image gap by identifyingprejudices and misperceptions as well as enabling it to dismantle and opposethe negative force that could: (1) hold back the nation’s economic development(2) damage the nation’s standing in the world community. The significance ofthis study is to establish a link from marketing perspective between image ofgovernment and economic performance. The outcome of the results is expected tohighlights the elements of government image that significantly influence theeconomic performance of the country. Hence, the suggested recommendations areexpected to be used by developing countries, particularly those in Sub-Africawho share similar characteristics to that of Ghana.

It is to add facts andinformation to existing academic literature useful for referencing.  1.5       DelimitationsAsthe nation Ghana has experienced diverse forms governance since its independencethen it becomes a perfect case for this study. The study will look at economicperformance of Ghana vis-à-vis the governance regimes since its independence toestablish a trend.

In this study economic performance will be defined in termsof growth domestic product (GDP/capita) while government image is described interms of factors such as media relations, trust, nation branding andconsonance. 1.6      Chapter Disposition Thisresearch was organized into six main chapters.

Chapter One, Introduction,comprise of background to the study, summary of methods in explaininggovernment image, study objectives, areas of focus, delimitations, and chapterdisposition. Chapter Two, Literature Review, consist of theoretical review,empirical review, and summary of the chapter. Chapter three presents Ghana’s economic performance andpolitical governance. Chapter four,Research Methodology, captures research design, data collection approach, datacollection ethics and method of data analysis. Chapter five, data presentation,results and discussion presents the processed data, analyses and discussions.Chapter six, conclusion and recommendation, presents summary of the findings,conclusion based on the research questions, limitations of the study andrecommendations.  1.

7       Creative OpinionGhana,due to her different political regimes and governments since its independencethe economic performance has gone through various twists and turns. The countryhas experienced both military and multi-party regimes. In each of the case, itseconomic performance has gone through some form of changes, some impressiveperformance, others dreadful. During the military regimes in the 1960s, 1970s,1980s and 1990s, the business communities were the worst sufferers of the bluntof dictatorships, autocracies, repressions and despotisms tendencies.

At somestage in these eras, local businesses who could not withstood the vagaries ofthe economy collapsed while others, particularly, multinationals eitherrelocated to the safer destinations or reduced their investments. In all theseregime periods, the image of governments appeared shoddier and woefully affectedthe economic performance of the country even notwithstanding some successchucked by some of them. Examining the economic performance of the country, it showsevidently that gross domestic products (GDP/capita), the measure of economicperformance, during these military regimes proved more terrible depiction thandemocratic dispensations.Also,even under the democratic dispensations, at some periods of times the economicperformance dips as result of lack of investments in the economy and relocationof businesses which were purportedly on the account of governments’ image. Asideologies and policies in politics cannot be ruled out, some political partiesin the reins of power attracts more foreign direct investments (FDIs) andbusinesses than the others. Political parties that are branded businessfriendly are bound to attract more FDIs and businesses and hence grow theeconomy in more positive way.

Bythis rendition, it clear that there is a link between the economic performanceand the image of government. As under certain regimes, the economic performanceof the country blossom while also within certain regimes it becomes worst-off.The image of government is very critical to every nation’s economic performancebecause in marketing, national branding which is almost synonymous togovernment image is all that the investors both local and foreigners need topromote businesses to enhance economic growth. Hence, this study seek to analyzethe influence government image has on nation’s economic performance, and the extentof the influence. Due to number of key stakeholders involve in determining thegovernment’s image and economic performance are numerous, this studyconcentrates mainly on business entities whose outputs and performances havedirect benefits or otherwise on both the households and the nation.