1) and interdepartmental bickering are often symptoms of

based-marketing are important and relevant for the organizations. Purpose-based
marketing is basically about the consumers on the values and beliefs of a
company. Consumers are purchasing a product because of the company’s core
values and image. If the company can’t communicate its core values accurately
and have bad image or reputation, then there is no incentive for a consumer to
purchase a product that produce by the company. Customers tend to support and
recommend brands that have a purpose, memory and meaning to them. Besides, it
also increases positive thoughts about the brand and encourages them to buy
that brand than another brand. Brand value is important to the customers. It
can build relationship with the customer and make them be loyal with that brand.


There are three
major Research & Development approaches for implementing strategies. The
first strategy is to be the first mover in new technological products. The
second one is to be an innovative imitator of successful products, thus
minimizing risks and costs of start-up. The third strategy is to be a low-cost
producer by mass producing product similar to but less expensive than product
recently produce. As a new product is accepted by customers, price become
increasingly important in the buying decision. 
As an owner of a small software company, I would prefer third approach
which is to be a low-cost producer by mass producing product similar. First
reason is use a mass media as a selling strategy to sell and market the
product. With the technological era, consumer are prefer to find and purchase the
products or services. Use mass media is the best strategy to introduce the
product and market the new product. Second is low cost in Research &
Development. This strategies requires substantial investment in plant and
equipment. But in term of Research & Development the expenditure is lower
than other strategies. Last is the price of the product. Price is importance in
term to sell the product. To compete with other competitor we need to sell the
product with a good price. In term to attract the customer, I will set the
price under the competitor price.

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There are four
of Rumelt ‘s Criteria for evaluating strategies. First is consistency. Goal and
policies should be consistent with the strategy. The strategy should not
present inconsistent goals and policies. Organizational conflict and
interdepartmental bickering are often symptoms of managerial disorder, but
these problem may also be sign of strategic inconsistency. Second is
consonance. Consonance refer to the need for strategists to examine sets of
trend, as well as individual trends in evaluating strategies. A strategy should
present an adaptive response to the external environment and to the critical
changes occurring within it. Third is feasibility. It is about ensure that the
strategy is doable within the capability of organization. A strategy must
neither overtax available resources nor create unsolvable sub problems.  Lastly is advantage. A strategy must provide
for the creation and maintenance of a competitive advantage in selected area of
activity. Competitive advantages normally are the result of superiority in one
of three areas which are resources, skills and position.


Resistance to
change can be considered the single greatest threat to successful strategy
implementation .There are three commonly used strategies to minimize employee
resistance to change. Firstly, force change strategy. It involves giving orders
and enforcing those orders. This strategy has the advantage of being fast, but
it is plagued by low commitment and high resistance. The manager uses his
authority and imposes change with little or no involvement of other people. It
is required for the people to follow the rules or they will get a punishment.  Secondly, educative change strategy. Educative
change strategies is one that one that presents information to convince people
of the need for change. The disadvantage of an educative change strategy is
that implementation becomes slow and difficult. However, this type of strategy
develops a greater commitment and less resistance compared to the force change
strategy. Lastly, rational or self-interest change strategy. It is the one that
attempts to convince individuals that the change is to their personal
advantage. When this appeal is successful, strategy implementation can be
relatively easy. However, implementation changes are seldom to everyone’s
advantage. The rational change strategy is the most desirable, so this approach
is examined a bit further. Managers can improve the likelihood of successfully
implementing change by carefully designed change efforts.