1. Introduction Water is avital resource for all living things on the planet. About 75 percent of theearth surface is covered with water.
But then, only round about three percentof total water volumes is the freshwater resource. Two-third of the freshwaterresource are padlocked in glaciers and ice caps. Therefore, the accessible freshwaterresource is few percent of the total freshwater resource. Water resource is becoming scared graduallynowadays. In amid countries, having access to safe, clean, fresh drinking wateris limited. Freshwater demand is increasing in ever for agriculture, drinking,sanitation, leisure and manufactures. Presently,most countries in many parts of the world are confronting the pressures onwater resources.
World population is increasing agilely and it is estimatedthat the population may reach to nine billion by 2050. This population will needabout 60 percent increasing agricultural production. Such kinds of increasingdemand on water resource make a scarcity in many parts of the world. It isestimated that 40 percent of the global population lives in water scare areaapproximately 25 percent of the global GDP is exposed to this kind ofchallenges. By 2025, twenty-three percent of the global population will beliving in the place where absolute water scarcity occurred.
Additionally, assome of the biggest threats to global prosperity and the stability, extreme weatherevents (drought and flood), hydrological uncertainty and chronic water scarcitywere perceived. Many countries occur water security and challenges that are concernedin water resources. Freshwater isthe crucial resource not only for human welfare but also for economicactivities. Inefficient access to advanced water supply may result in the humanhealth and hazards and loss of time in production processes, and that may alsopose acute problems in most parts of the world. Accordingly, the freshwaterresource for both agricultural production and domestic use play in the crucialrole to be conserved in integrated ways.The remainingparts of this paper are divided into four main sections. The section (2) discusses on water resource,its crisis and problems, the section (3) considers the Integrated Water ResourceManagement and case study in Myanmar’s IWRM, thesection (4) makes a discussion on waterresource management and the section (5) concludes the paper.2.
Water Resource, its crisis and Problems Water resource is the most important one to the humanbeing for ages. Demand for the freshwater resource has increased sharply with steadygrowth in world population, bringing about rising consumption, rapid development,climate change and widespread water pollutions from domestic, industrial andagricultural sectors. The price of fresh water is also steadily increased byrising demand and the shortage of freshwater over the years. It has beenindicated by statistics from the United Nations (UN) that about two billion people willbe living in regions with absolute water scarcity, and round about 70 percent of the world’spopulation could be living under water-stress conditions by the year 2025. Hence, it is becoming more crucial than ever thatthe efficient water management with good practices. The overuse of water, watermismanagement, changes in availability and pollution are the factors of the presentwater crisis.2.
1. The main causes ofthe water “crisis”According to Tundist et al. (2008), rapid urbanization in many parts ofthe world, increasing water usage and widespread of wastewater discharged, causeswater crisis. Alteration in the availability of water also makes water scarcityand water stress. Further, unsuitable infrastructures in water networks in manyurban areas also cause the water sanitation problems. Global changes in extremehydrological events, increasing human populations are the problems of the stressand scarcity of water resources.
Additionally, lack of consistent actions ofwater resources and lack of articulation is also the factors of the watercrisis.This set ofproblems has continental, regional, local and planetary dimensions. Theseproblems contribute to an exacerbation and increase of sources of contaminationand to be decreased availability. Further, the problems contribute alterationof the water resources with scarcity. These also contribute to increasing thevulnerability of people population because of the difficulty of access to goodquality water.
Besides, these problems also afford to water contamination, and thequality and quantity of water, and to respond to these causes public health andinterfere in human, with a deterioration of economic and social development andof quality of life. 2.2 Measures to solve the problems To solve these problems and to make enhance strategies forlong-term management, the watershed survey, integrating research, managementand monitoring should be approached. An improved water governance system basedon the participation of changes stakeholders and the public and private sectorshould also be considered and implemented. Strategic studies on water andenergy, water and metropolitan area and water and economy have to be enhanced.
Aframework for international cooperation hared watersheds is the crucialapproach to solve the water crisis and problems. Furthermore, an economicevaluation of water resources services must be taken account to make backing insolving water-related problems. And the measures for capacity building formanagers, with an integrated, predictive and hydrographic basin approach arethe crucial thing to support in solving the problems. Education of alllevels of the community and the preparation of managers with the approachesis another necessary development for water resources management.
3. IntegratedWater Resource Management(IWRM)3.1.
Definition and history of IWRMTheTechnical Committee of the Global Water Partnership (GWP) has defined the IWRM as “a processwhich promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land andrelated resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and socialwelfare in an equitable manner without compromisingthe sustainability of vital ecosystems.”The IWRM frameworkdesigned base on four keys principles of Dublin Conference on Water which washeld in 1992 and Rio de Janeiro Summit on Sustainable Development. Thisframework aimed to improve the water resources management. The four keys principle of DublinConference on Water arethat (1) fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource essential tosustain life, development, and the environment, (2) water development and managementshould be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners, andpolicymakers at all levels,(3) women play a central part in the provision, management, andsafeguarding of water,and (4) water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should berecognized as an economic good.IWRM come out ofthree principles that are economic efficiency, social equity, andenvironmental sustainability. Economic efficiency means bringing the enormous benefit to thegreatest number of users possible with available water resources and finances.The economic value is not only about price but also current and future social,and environmental costs and benefits should be taken account.
Socialequity means ensuring equal access for all water users to an adequate quantity andquality of water necessary to sustain human well-being. When making water allocation, the right of allusers to the benefits gained from the use of water resource also needs to betaken account. The financial benefits come from the use of water for economicpurposes and enjoyment of resources through recreational use may be included inbenefits. Ecological sustainabilityrequires that aquatic ecosystems are acknowledged as users and thatadequate allocation is made to sustain their natural functioning.
Limiting or avoiding land usesand developments that negatively impact aquatic ecosystem need to be achievedthis creation.IWRM approaches involveapplying knowledge from various disciplines as well as the insights fromdiverse stakeholders to devise and implement efficient, equitable andsustainable solutions to water and development problems. As IWRM is a comprehensive, participatoryplanning and implementation tool for managing and developing waterresources in a way that balancessocial and economic need, and thatensures the protection of ecosystems for future generations. An IWRM approachis an open, flexible process, bringing together decision-makers across thevarious sectors that impact water resources, and bringing all stakeholdersto the table to set policy and make a sound, balanced decisions in response to specific waterchallenges faced. 3.
2 Implementation of IWRMIWRM aims to create sustainable water security within the presentconstraints and to improve the conditions in the catchment basin.Some important conditions for implementing IWRM are political will and commitment that will supportand ease public pressure for IWRM implementation. A clear vision for riverbasin Management and participation and coordination mechanism are also theimportant conditions for implementing. Moreover, well-defined flexible andenforcement legal frameworks and regulations, water allocation plan, adequateinvestment, financial stability and sustainable cost recovery, good knowledge ofnatural resources present in the basin, and comprehensive monitoring and evaluationare also important conditions for implementation of IWRM. 3.
3. Casestudy: Integrated Water Resources Management in Myanmar In Myanmar, the Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM)is being implemented by the National Water Resource Committee (NWRC) which isan apex body of the transforms. Myanmar, one of the ASEAN member countries, is aforest-clad mountainous country, with plains, valleys and plateaus. Itcan be divided intofour ecological categories such as mountainous region, central dry zone, Ayeyarwaddydelta and coastal zone. Myanmar has 1082 km³ of potential water volume for surface water and495 km³ for groundwater as well constitute national waterresources annually.
Thetotalstorage capacity of damsis21283 million cubic meter. Water utilization for agriculturalsector stands for 89percent and the highest proportion of water usage becauseMyanmar is an agro-based country and its domestic use is about 10 percent and industry use is only1 percent ofthe total water use. Thetotal utilization of the nation’s water resources is only about 5 percent of thepotential.
It is clear that the physical potential for further development ofwater resources in Myanmar is quite substantial. On the other hand, Myanmar is occurring water-related issues such as floods andscarcity even thoughMyanmar has the rich water resource. There is a diversityof climatic conditions in Myanmar which present challenges for it. Rainfall is unevenly distributed over the country andover the seasons and over the country leading to flash floods, floods and alsovery important, to droughts and water shortages.
Additionally, along withpopulation increase and urbanization, the water demand in cities has increased.Water demand in rural areas has also increased due to the development ofirrigated agriculture and other rural-based economic activities. Extraction of groundwaterand use of surface water it becoming pressure on it. That is why management andcontrol of groundwater and surface water are important for the sustainabledevelopment of the country. It also needs to step up water conservation, suchas rainwater harvesting strategic planning for water resource development andrelated infrastructure enhancement. Myanmar also needs special targeted capacitydevelopment for thelocal community to be able to meaningfully participate in water managementdecision-makingprocess at all levels. Therefore, National Water Resources Committee (NWRC) was established on 25 July 2013 forcoordination and cooperation among water-related Ministries, Departments and Organizations, The intellectual andtechnical support has been provided by the Expert Group of the NWRC.
TheNetherlands government supportedthe IWRM Strategic Study in Myanmar. In MyanmarIntegrated Water Resource Management, there have six key management issues. The following are the overview of these six keyManagement issues.
3.3.1. Water Supply ManagementWater supplyManagement in Myanmar is the responsibility of respective local governments.
Therefore, one of the activities of City Development Committee (Naypyidaw,Yangon, Mandalay) and Department of Rural development is to support theadequate water supply to their respective area. Most cities and towns inMyanmar can provide the water supply for domestic use but water quality is notup to drinking water quality standard. The Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC) has collaborated with JICA for thedevelopment of Yangon downtown master plan 2040. 3.3.2. Irrigations ManagementIrrigationdevelopment in Myanmar is the responsibilities of Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation(MOAI).
The irrigation water management activities include the constructions ofthe irrigation dams and the allocations of water for agriculture. The water isdistributed from the dams via gravity and through pumping stations. Seasonalwater quality tests are carried out at the dams and are not installed atirrigation canals. 3.3.3. Stormwater ManagementStormwatermanagement is the responsibility of the City Development Committees (Yangon, Naypyidawand Mandalay) and the Department of Rural Development (DRD). Urban floods occurafter the heavy rains generally.
JICA has assisted in the implementation ofurban planning projects for Mandalay and Yangon cities.3.3.4.
Floods ManagementFloodsmanagement in Myanmar is the responsibilities of Irrigation Department (ID) thatis under MOAI, Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (DMH), Directorate ofWater Resources and Improvement of River systems (DWIR), General AdministrationDepartment (GAD) and Relief and ResettlementDepartment (RRD) that is under Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement(MOSWRR). Non-structural flood management measures are implemented by DMH andstructural measures by the DWIR and ID. The DMH collects the meteorological andhydrological data, and forecast the flood model. The construction of reservoirs,levees, and dredging of the creeks by the ID and the early step warning systemare available at the DMH. The RRD is responsible for the flood relief and resettlementmatters. 3.3.5.
Water Pollution ManagementWater pollutionmanagement in Myanmar is the responsibilities of the Environmental ConservationDevelopment (ECD) that is under the Ministry of Natural Resources andEnvironmental Conservation (MONREC), DWIR, Department of Mining (DOM), YCDC, Departmentof Health (MOH). Most of the water pollution comes from improper mining, drainagefrom industries, and poor drainage systems in the cities. Water conservationregulations and Environmental Conservation Law are the tools to controlled waterpolluting activities. The National Water Policy has been established by theNWRC and National water law is under development.
3.3.6. Water Sanitation ManagementWater SanitationManagement in Myanmar is the responsibility of the local authorities.
Currently,about 7% of the Yangon’s population and 5% of the Mandalay’s population areprovided with modern sanitation facilities. JICA has helped to developmentYangon Master Plan in which there are the proposal to improve the sanitation systemin Yangon. The public is educated on the need to practice good water sanitationvia broadcasting news in MRTV, MWD, MRTV- 4, etc. 3.3.7. EconomicEfficiency, Equity and Environmental sustainability of IWRMEconomic efficiency: By adopting the IWRM in Myanmar, water use efficiency has been improvedin many cities. It is lead-in the economic efficiency for all nationalisms andit could reduce the increasing scarcity of water, and water shortage in the country.
Equity: Likewise the global people who have the rightto access the adequate water supply, all Myanmar people have also the right toaccess the adequate water supply and good sanitation. Myanmar IWRM hasimplemented to cater for that.Environmental sustainability:To get the environmental andecological sustainability, Integrated Water Resource Management leading toconserve water resources by adopting the efficient ways in using waterresources for all purposesthereby compromising use by future generations of the same resource.Eachmanagement sector has begun to enhance the implementations in IWRM. Due to amove towards IWRM and its subsequent improvements, irrigation efficiency has risen gradually inmany parts of Myanmar. Stormwater management, especially in Yangon, Naypyidaw,Mandalay and Taunggyi cities, become better conditions than before IWRM. Waterpollution management and sanitation processes have also been improved byimplementing the EnvironmentalConservation Law and the Environmental Impact Assessment Procedures.
On theother hand, there have some challenges in most of the management sectors. Moreresearch is still needed to solve the problems in each sector. In Myanmar’sIWRM, there also have some barriers such as lack of traditions forinter-minister cooperation, budget limitation, limited capacity and technology.After making the completion to this challenges, we hope that the Myanmar’ IWRMwill get success in the conservation of water resources in sustainable ways. 4. DiscussionWorld populationgrowth makes more water demand and it also makes more water pollutions.
Freshwaterscarcity problem is caused in part by the increasing demandsof growing human populationrapidly, by the uneven spatial distributionof rainfall whichis being exacerbated by climate change and by a long history of poormanagement practices. Wecannot solve easily some problems which caused by climatic conditions and bynatural events. But, we can make change the management practices to getsustainable water management. In order for water security to bemanaged effectively, the use of economic and policy instruments have to be considered in integrated forms. Effective watersecurity management,therefore,requires planners to take into account the ‘triple bottom line’ and evaluatepolicies in terms of their economic, environmental, and impacts. In the agriculture sector which is the most waterdemand sector, there is need to improve water use efficiency for sustainableagriculture.
By adopting the proper irrigation management and good governancepractices, water use efficiency in agriculture can be improved and it maysupport for sustainable agriculture. To solve andreduce the problems that relate to water resources, Integrated Water ResourceManagement is the best approach. Some case studies show the facts that IWRM can lead to moreeconomically, socially, and environmentally sustainable solutions to complexwater issues, however, it is important to note that this will not always be thecase. IWRM based schemes cannotbe a successfuland critical evaluation of the successes and failures of such schemes iscrucial to understanding how water management can be improved. We need to approach sustainable water management via thesuccess of Integrated Water Management. 5. ConclusionWater is thefundamental requirement for all living things including human life andwell-being.
Now a day, people in manyparts of the world are confronting the scarcity and shortage of water becauseof population growth and water pollution events. Accordingly, water resource managementis really needed for sustainable and adequate water supply for all. Mostcountries are adopting the IWRM to conserve water resource in a sustainableway. To improve the implementation of the IWRM, decisionmakers need to learn thesuccessful practices from other countries. And the governors need to supportthe research institutes to be able to conduct more research in all sectors forwater resource management.
Water is the commondenominator of energy, food, peace and security, poverty eradication.Therefore, it is at the foundation of sustainable development.Now a day the implementation of sustainable development goals is the priorityduty for all nations in the world. Without sustainable water resourcemanagement, sustainable development cannot be gained.
That is why we need tocollaborate each other to get the success of Integrated Water Resource Managementand Sustainable Water Management in order to implement the Sustainable DevelopmentGoals.