1.It was observed that many of the customers are aware ofthe CRM Practices of the APSRTC.2. The APSRTC has been adopting many technologicaladvancements which are used by many of the customers.3.
Many of the respondents are positive to the views of CRMin APSRTCSuggestions:1. Though the APSRTC has been implementing many ofthe CRM Practices it is suggested to implement many schemes to attract thecustomers.2. Information about the cancellation of busesshould be given to the customers before time Conclusion:1. These type of studies are more useful further roadtransportation companies in India.2. Other investigators may use these type of studies forfurther anyalsis and investigation Project report submitted inpartial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of MASTERS INBUSINESS ADMINISTRATIONSubmitted by P.
HIMASAGAR(121723603035) GITAMInstitute of ManagementGITAMUniversity(Established U/S 3 of UGC Act, 1956) VISAKHAPATNAM 2018-2019 DECLARATIONI, P.hima sagar,a student ofMasters of Business Administration (M.B.A.), GITAM Institute of Management(GIM), GITAM University, Visakhapatnam hereby declare that the project workinitiated on “ANDHRAPRADESH STATE ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION ” is a genuine work done by mein partial fulfillment for the requirement of the degree of Masters of BusinessAdministration. I confirm this has not been published or submitted elsewherefor the award of any degree in part or in full. Name: P.
HIMASAGARDate: 19.12.2017 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI would like to express mysincere gratitude, GITAM Institute of Rajeshwari Panigrahi Associate Professor Management, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam whoseknowledge and guidance has motivated me to achieve goals I never thoughtpossible. She has consistently been a source of motivation, encouragement, andinspiration. The time I have spent working under his supervision has truly beena pleasure. I am thankful, Dean and Principal P.SHEELA, GITAM Institute of Management, GITAM University,Visakhapatnam for extending his utmost support and co-operation in providingall the provisions, and Management for providing excellent facilities to carryout my project work.Finally special thanks tomy parents, for their support and encouragement throughout my life and thiscourse.
Thanks to all my friends and well-wishers for their constant support. P.HIMA SAGAR ANDHRA PRADESH STATE ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION 1.2 CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM) Customer RelationshipManagement (CRM) is one of the emerging concepts in modern marketing. Theorigin of CRM has it deep roots since 1956 in the form of segmenting thecustomers into discrete groups. Even though the concept of CRM emerged wayback, it is only during the last fifteen years the concept of CRM had an’important bearing on the business (Nairn1, 2002).
The emergence ofCRM concept is due to the relationship marketing focus, Specifically one-to-onemarketing (Peppers & Rogers2, 1993; Peppers3 et al., 1999) by thebusiness firms and the market orientation by the business firms, i.e.,collecting, analysing and disseminating huge quantum ofcustomer information.These two important focuses helped in creation of CRM technology.
The reasonsfor the speedy growth of CRM can be ascribed to the following; a) Cutthroatcompetition among the business firms for the valuable customers, b) Economies in retaining customers and gettinglife-time value from them and c) Technologicalbreakthroughs (Buttle4, 2004; Goodhue5et al., 2002; Karimi6 et al., 2001; Ling ,2001; Winer8, 2001). 1.
2.2 Definition: The following is morecomprehensive definition on Customer Relationship Management: Philip Kotler et al9 (2008), “customerrelationship management is the overall process of building and maintainingprofitable customer relationships by delivering superior customer value andsatisfaction. It deals with all aspects of acquiring, keeping and growing customers”. The above definition in away tries to lay the foundation of CRM along with the objective for which itshould be designed.
The definition implies: 1. CRMis an enterprise-wide activity, i.e.
it is not just confined to the marketingdepartment of the organisation .2. Theobjective of CRM IS acquisition, retention and partnering with the customers.3. Therehas to be segmentation of the customers for whom CRMis designed. 1.
3.6 Objectives by Kim, Suh and Hwang: Kim10 et al. (2003) offered thefollowing CRM objectives whicharecategorised into four groups. They are; 1. Customer knowledge: a) collectingappropriate customer information b) analyzingcustomer data c) acquiringnew customers d) improvingskills of employee e) improvingCRM technique f) secure service 2. Customer interaction: a) appropriateresponse to customer request b) integrationof business processes c) improvingchannels management d) maximizingthe effectiveness and efficiency of organisation operationse) customizingproducts and services 3. Customer value: a) improvingcustomer retention b) profitsincrease c) improvingcustomer service and support d) buildingan attractive virtual community 4. Customer satisfaction: a) improvingservice quality b) establishingrelationships with customers 2.
25 OBJECTIVESOF THE STUDY 1. To presentthe conceptual framework relating to customer relationship management. 2.
To elicitthe views of customers/commuters on CRM practices followed by APSRTC in GunturDistrict.3. To offerfindings, suggestions and conclusions of the study. HYPOTHESISOF THE STUDYTheCommuters / Passengers are satisfied with the CRM practices of the APSRTC.Sample Size:The calculated size of sample for apopulation of the passenger/customers/commuters 6.
53 lakhs with 0.1% i.e., 653.The researcher has taken as a sample size. Convenience sampling method isadopted for this study. DataCollection Methods: The present study mainly relies onprimary data; however secondary data sources were also taken intoconsideration. Data is collected through personal interaction with theofficials of the selected organizations.
The responses obtained onwell-structured and pre-tested questionnaire have been the major source in thecompilation of report. The secondary data sources include reports, researchpapers, books, etc. QuestionnaireDesign: The research objectives andsubsequent hypotheses determined the information required from the researchinstruments. Three types of information were sought from the APSRTCorganization. Viz.
, (a) CRM objectives,(b) Organization and management of CRM and (c) Evolution of CRM. To enablestatistical analysis of the results, structured – undisguised, self-administeredquestionnaire was selected and majority of the constructs in the measuringinstrument used three and five point liker-type scales and few are dichotomousquestions etc.,. Questionnaire items from previously published and validatedquestionnaires were adapted to the context of this study. The A.P.S.R.
T.C is the second largest publicsector transport undertaking in the country. Earlier passenger transport wascontrolled by private sector in coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions,and public sector in Telangana region.In course of time, a separate corporation was set up and road transport wasnationalized in phases and the APSRTC extended its services to all districts. APSRTC is the state owned Road TransportCorporation in the southern Indian State of Andhra Pradesh. It is recognized asthe single corporation having the largest number of buses in the world.
Thiswas also certified by the by the Guinness book of world records. InitiallyAPSRTC operated city bus services in Hyderabad and mostly ordinary services toother areas with green and dark green shades. In the year 1994 APSRTC hasintroduced different colour shades of buses with dark blue and white colourcalled the metro liners.
These buses were operatd initially in twin cities inHyderabad and Secundrabad to commute city traffic from one end to another. Thishas been prove to be a success and thecommuters received these buses very well. Similar type of bus facility was introducing in Visakhapatnam also whichis the second largest city in Andhra Pradesh. APSRTC then introduced metroexpress buses to provide a comfortable travel for commuters in Hyderabad.
APSRTC has been actually participating in thenational activities also. In the year 2002 when the national games wereheld in the city of Hyderabad the APSRTC complimented by providing new yellowbuses colored buses for transporting the participants/ organizers between thevenues and places of stay. These buses were named Veera which happened to bethe games mascot for the 2002 national games. Later few A/C buses in the nameof Seethalahamsa’s were introduced to give a big boost with the coverage ofurban transportation under the JNNURM scheme in which the union government providedfunds for the purchase of buses forimproving urban transport. More than 2000 buses were sanctioned under thisscheme APSRTC. From the year2009 end the JNNURM metro express buses with newfeatures were seen on the roads of twin cities.
Later A/C Volvo buses wereadded under the JNNURM scheme. APSRTC has also introduced CNG buses in somecities notably in Vijayawada.APSRTCextends its services to all major towns, cities and rural areas. DATA ANALYSIS ANDINTERPRETATION COMMUTERS / PASSENGERS SECTION – ATable – 5.
1 AgeFactor Age (in years) No. of Respondents Percentage (%) Below – 20 years 65 10.00 21 – 30 52 8.
00 31 – 40 385 59.00 41 – 50 59 9.00 51 – 60 59 9.00 Above – 60 33 5.00 Total 653 100 Theinformation related to the age group of respondents is shown in Table – 5.1about 59% of the respondents fall in the age group of between 31-40 years andwho are above 60 years are very low in number.Table – 5.
2 Gender Gender No. of Respondents Percentage (%) Male 627 96.00 Female 26 4.00 Total 653 100.00 The presentstudy is dominated by male respondents which is shown in Table – 5.
2.Table – 5.3 Qualifications Qualifications No. of Respondents Percentage (%) Below Graduation 522 80.00 Above Graduation 131 20.
00 Total 653 100.00 The details of respondents accordingto Educational qualifications are shown in Table – 5.3. A majority of about 80%of respondents are having a basic degree as their education qualification.Those who are having PG as their qualification are about 20% of therespondents. Graph – 5.2 Gender Table – 5.4 Occupation Occupation No.
of Respondents Percentage (%) Farmers 118 18.00 Employees 176 27.00 Business Men 287 44.00 Others 72 11.00 Total 653 100.00 Theresponse is different for different categories.According toit 44% of the respondents are business men, followed by employees and farmerswho are with 27% and 18% respectively.
Table – 5.12 TechnologicalAdvancement adopted by APSRTC No. of Respondents Percentage (%) a) Online booking of current and advance ticket 515 79.00 b) Data kept in APSRTC portal.
112 17.00 c) Tele contact by higher management 26 04.00 d) Any other view, please specify …………… 0 0.00 Total 653 100.00 Descriptive Statistics Respondents Mean 163.25 Standard Error 119.6672 Median 69 Mode #N/A Standard Deviation 239.3343 Sample Variance 57280.
92 Kurtosis 3.141392 Skewness 1.772549 Range 515 Minimum 0 Maximum 515 Sum 653 Count 4 Theresponse is different for different categories.
Thetechnological advancements adopted by APSRTC include online booking of currentand advance tickets, upto date data kept in APSRTC portal etc. The views ofrespondents are recorded in Table 5.12.
Table – 5.13 Usefulnessof Technological Advancement No. of Respondents Percentage (%) a) For updating of latest information 188 29.00 b) For improving relations with the APSRTC. 40 06.00 c) Helps in getting your requirements met fast 411 63.
00 d) Any other opinion, please specify ………… 14 02.00 Total 653 100 Descriptive Statistics Respondents Mean 163.25 Standard Error 91.03971 Median 114 Mode #N/A Standard Deviation 182.0794 Sample Variance 33152.
92 Kurtosis 0.131687 Skewness 1.107183 Range 397 Minimum 14 Maximum 411 Sum 653 Count 4 Theresponse is different for different categories. The opinion onusefulness of technological advancements to the commuters is furnished in Table5.13.
The analysis reveals that the changes in technological advancement isuseful to get the requirements of commuters met fast.Table – 5.19 The views of CRM Statement 5 4 3 2 1 a) Help to provide information to customers. 54 33 12 1 0 b) Improve relationship with RTC. 21 27 27 6 0 c) Improve the image of RTC in the long-run. 24 39 18 4 3 d) Effectively meet the competition. 12 42 33 2 1 e) A marketing strategy not useful to customers. 15 21 18 10 7 f) Lacks basic approach to satisfy customers.
27 30 12 5 5 g) No proper information about the schemes/benefits. 15 30 18 5 4 h) It is only an internal activity. 15 9 36 6 6 Total 183 231 174 39 26 5-Strongly agree; 4-Agree; 3-Uncertain; 2-Disagree; 1-Strongly disagreeThe views of respondents on various aspectsof CRM are presented in Table 5.19. The majority of respondents strongly agreewith following statements · Help to provide information to customers.
Agree withthe following statements · Improve relationship with RTC.· Improve the image of RTC in the long-run.· Effectively meet the competition. · A marketing strategy not useful to customers.· Lacks basic approach to satisfy customers.· No proper information about theschemes/benefits.
Uncertainwith the following statements · It is only an internal activity. Table – 5.20 Awarenessof schemes of APSRTC No.
of Respondents Percentage (%) a) CAT cards, 158 24.00 b) Vanitha Family card. 124 19.00 c) Couple Gift card 0 0.00 d) Package tours, 11 2.00 e) Jublee tickets and 0 0.00 f) all the above. 322 49.
00 g) Any other, please specify… 38 6.00 Total 653 100.00 The details of respondents according to theawareness of the schemes of APSRTC is presented in Table 5.20. According to it,majority of respondents are aware of all most all the schemes like CAT Cards,Vanitha Family Cards, Couple Gift Cards, Package Tours etc. Findings:1.
It was observed that many of the customers are aware ofthe CRM Practices of the APSRTC.2. The APSRTC has been adopting many technologicaladvancements which are used by many of the customers.3. Many of the respondents are positive to the views of CRMin APSRTCSuggestions:3.
Though the APSRTC has been implementing many ofthe CRM Practices it is suggested to implement many schemes to attract thecustomers.4. Information about the cancellation of busesshould be given to the customers before time Conclusion:1. These type of studies are more useful further roadtransportation companies in India.2. Other investigators may use these type of studies forfurther anyalsis and investigation1Nairn,A. (2002). CRM: Helpful or full of hype? Journal of Database Marketing, 9(4),376-382.
2Peppers,D., & Rogers, M. (1993). The one to one future: Building relationships onecustomer at a time. New York: Doubleday.3Peppers,D., Rogers, M.
, &Dorf, B. (1999). Is your company ready for one-to-onemarketing? Harvard Business Review, 77(1), 151-160.4Buttle,F. (2004). Customer relationship management: Concepts and tools. Sydney:Elsevier5Goodhue,D. L.
, Wixom, B. I-.,& Watson, H .
. J. (2002). Realizing business benefits: through CRM: Hitting the right target in the right way. MIS QuarterlyExecutive, 1(2), 79-946Karimi,J., Somers, T. M.
, & Gupta, Y. P. (2001).Impact of information technologymanagement practices on customer service. Journal of ManagementInformation Systems, 17(4), 125-1587Ling,R., & Yen, D. C.
(2001). Customer relationship management: An analysisframework and implementation strategies. The Journal of Computer InformationSystems, 41(3),82-978Winer,R. S. (2001).
A framework for customer relationship management.California ManagementReview, 43(4), 89-1059PhilipKotler& Gary Armstrong (2008), Principles of Marketing, 12th Edition,Prentice Hall of India, pp. 1310Kim,J. Suh E.
& Hwang, H. (2003).A Model for Evaluating the Effectiveness ofCRM using the Balanced Scorecard.Journal of Business Interactive Marketing.17(2), 5-19.