1. point and even at a similar point

1.  ToPrepare the Classical Experiment Conducted by Reynolds’s Concerning FlowConditions1.1    objectiveToperform the Reynolds experiment for determination of different regimes of flow1.2    basicsThe stream of genuineliquids can essentially happen under two altogether different ways to bespecific laminar and turbulent stream. The laminar stream is portrayed byliquid particles moving as lamina sliding over each other, with the end goalthat at any moment the speed whatsoever the focuses in is the same. The laminaclose to the stream limit move at a slower rate when contrasted with thoseclose to the focal point of the stream entry. This sort of stream happens ingooey liquids, liquids moving at moderate speed and liquids moving throughrestricted sections.

 The turbulent streamis portrayed by consistent fomentation and intermixing of liquid particles withthe end goal that their speed changes from point to point and even at a similarpoint every a while. This kind of stream happens in low thickness Liquids,course through wide section and in high speed streams. Reynolds led anexamination for perception and assurance of these administrations of stream. Bypresenting a fine fiber of color in to the stream of water through the glass tube,at its passageway he examined the distinctive sorts of stream. At low speedsthe color fiber showed up as straight line through the length of the tube andparallel to its hub, portraying laminar stream. As the speed is expanded thecolor fiber ends up plainly wavy all through showing progress stream. Onadditionally expanding the speed the fiber separates and diffuses totally inthe water in the glass tube demonstrating the turbulent stream.

In the wake of leadinghis try different things with funnels diverse widths and with water at varioustemperatures Reynolds reasoned that the different parameters on which theadministrations of stream depend can be assembled together in a solitarynon-dimensional parameter called Reynolds number. Reynolds number is characterizedas, the proportion of dormancy compel per unit volume byRe=vD/ µ =VD/vWhereRe-Reynolds numberV -velocity of flowD-characteristic length=diameter incase of pipe flow mass density of fluidµ-dynamic viscosity of fluidv -kinematic viscosity of fluidReynolds observed that in case offlow through pipe for values of Re<2000 the flow is laminar while offerRe>40000 it is turbulent and for 2000

3    equipmentsA stop watches, a graduatedchamber, and Reynolds apparatus which comprise of water tank having a glasstube taking off of it. The glass tube has a ringer mouth at entrance and aninvigorating valve at outlet, a color holder with a game plan for infusing afine fiber of color toward the begin of the glass tube.1.4    procedure1.     Fill the storage tank with water and allow it tostand for some instant so that the water comes to rest.2.     Record the temperature of water.

3.     Half open the outlet valve of the glass tube andstart the flow to take place at a very low speed.4.     Allow the flow to equalize then open the valvesat the start of the dye injector and allow the dye to move through the tube.Observe the nature of the filament.5.     Find the discharge by collecting water in thegraduated cylinder for a certain period of time.6.

     Revised the steps 3 and 5 for differentdischarges7.     Again, note the temperature of water.1.

5    observationsMean temperature of water – t –Kinematic viscosity of water-v-Diameter of glass tube-D-Reynold’s number experimentPerform the following calculations for each set of readingsDischarge -Q-Axh /tVelocity of flow – V-4Q /(D2)Reynolds number -Re-VD/v 2       Toverify the theoretical experiment for the force exerted by water jet strikingnormally on the flat plate (impact of jet) 2.1    objectiveTo verify the momentumequation experimentally through impact of jet experiment.2.2    ApparatususedImpact of jet apparatus, weightsand stop watch.

2.3    theoryThe energy condition in light ofNewton’s second law of movement expresses that the mathematical entirety ofoutside powers connected to control volume of liquid toward any path equivalentto the rate of alter of force in that course. The outside powers incorporate thesegment of the heaviness of the liquid and of the powers applied remotely uponthe limit surface of control volume. In the event that a vertical waterstream moving with speed ‘V’ made to strike an objective (Vane) which is free,to move in vertical bearing, power will be applied on the objective by theeffect of fly. Applying momentum equation in z-direction, force exerted by the jet on the vane, Fz is given by  F = ?Q (Vzout- VZ in) For flat plate, Vz out= 0  Fz = ?Q (0-v)            FZ = ?QvFor hemispherical curved plate, vzout= -v, vz in= v Fz = ?Q v+ (-v)            FZ = 2 ?QvWhere Q= Discharge from the nozzle(Calculated by volumetric method)  V= Velocity of jet = (Q/A)2.4    ExperimentalsetupThe set up basically comprises of aspout through which stream rises vertically such that it might beadvantageously seen through the straightforward barrel.

It strikes theobjective plate or circle situated above it. A game plan is made for thedevelopment of the plate under the activity of the due to the weight put on thestacking skillet. A scale is given to convey the plate to its unique positioni.

e. as before the stream strikes the plate. A gathering tank is used to locatethe genuine release and speed through spout.2.5    procedure1.     Note down the same dimensions as area ofcollecting tank and diameter of nozzle. 2.

     When jet is not running, note down the positionof top disc or plate.3.     Allow water supply to the nozzle. 4.     As the jet strikes the disc, the disc moves up,now place the weights to bring back the top disc to its original position.

5.     At this position find out the discharge and notedown the weights placed above the disc.6.     The procedure is carried out for differentvalues of flow rate by reducing the water supply in steps.

 2.6    observationDiameter of nozzle (d) = Area of the nozzle (A) = Mass density of water = 1gm/cm3Area of collecting tank = 1200cm2When jet is not running, positionof upper disc = ….




…. cm2.7    precautionsApparatus should be keep in samelevel.Reading must be taken in steadyconditions.Discharge must be changing verygradually from a higher to smaller value