1. Born to a Father Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Senior and Mother Ruth BowmanSchwarzkopf in Trenton, New Jersey NormanSchwarzkopf Jr was well knownAmerican military leader who headed the international coalition thatliberated Kuwait from Iraqi invasion forces during the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Hismasterclass planning and execution of Desert Shield and Desert Storm arecredited with freeing Kuwait with a minimum number of coalition deaths (lessthan 200), in an extraordinarily brief (100 hour) ground war. GeneralSchwarzkopf’s career in the U.S.
Army stretched from 1956 to 1991. He was a highly-decorated officer who served two tours of duty inVietnam (1965-66, 1969-70), and was deputy task force commander of the 1983U.S. invasion of Grenada following a Cuban-backed coup on that Caribbean islandnation. On November 18th, 1988 he became a four-star general and was appointed ascommander of the U.S.
Central Command, which included military operations inthe Middle East. 2. His dedication towardsthe service well decorated by numerousprestigious awards upon him following the successful outcome of the war.”On July 3, 1991, President Bush awarded he, the Presidential Medal ofFreedom.” The honors came not only from the United States, but gratefulnations around the world lined up to confer some of their highest honors onGeneral Schwarzkopf. Finally, he said good bye to his life inning at Florida in December2012. AIM 3.
The aim of this leadershipanalysis is to gain the knowledge on Norman SchwarzkopfJr bystudying, analysing and comparing while making recommendations for theapplicability of leadership styles for the present day context. LEADERSHIPANALYSIS outline of the leader 4. Childhood and Early Life. HerbertNorman Schwarzkopf Junior was born on 22 August 1934 in Trenton, New Jersey. Hisfather was a graduate of the United States Military Academy and veteran ofWorld War I. His mother was a housewife from West Virginia who was distantlyrelated to Thomas Jefferson. The senior Schwarzkopf later became the Superintendentof the New Jersey State Police, where he served as a lead investigator on the1932 Lindbergh baby kidnapping case.
In January 1952, the younger Schwarzkopf’sbirth certificate was amended to make his name “H. NormanSchwarzkopf”, reportedly because his father detested his first name. GeneralSchwarzkopf had two older sisters, Ruth Ann and Sally Joan. Norman Schwarzkopfwas described by childhood friends as active and assertive, protective of hissisters and a skilled athlete. He spent his childhood attached very much to hisfather, who subsequently became the narrator for the Gang Busters radioprogram. When Norman Schwarzkopf was eight years old, his father returned tothe military amid World War II. With his absence it made home life difficult,particularly for his wife.
As a 10-year-old cadet at Bordentown MilitaryInstitute, near Trenton, he posed for his official photograph wearing a sternexpression because as he said afterwards “Someday when I become a general,I want people to know that I’m serious.” In 1946, when Norman Schwarzkopf was 12, he moved with his father toTehran, Iran. In Iran, he learned shooting, horseback riding, and hunting.Schwarzkopf developed a lifelong interest in Middle Eastern culture. The familymoved to Geneva, Switzerland, in 1947, following a new military assignment forHerbert Schwarzkopf. The senior Schwarzkopf visited Italy, Heidelberg,Frankfurt, and Berlin, Germany during his military duties, and the youngerSchwarzkopf accompanied him. By 1951 he had returned to Iran briefly beforereturning to the United States.
Herbert Schwarzkopf died in 1958. From a youngage, Norman wanted to be a military officer, following his father’s example. 5.
He attended theCommunity High School in Tehran, later the International School of Geneva, andbriefly Frankfurt American High School, in Frankfurt, Germany (1948–49), andHeidelberg American High School, in Heidelberg, Germany (1949–50). Heeventually graduated from Valley Forge Military Academy. He was also a memberof Mensa. Schwarzkopf graduated valedictorian out of his class of 150, and hehad the highest IQ which is 168.Schwarzkopf then attended the United StatesMilitary Academy, where he played football, wrestled, sang and conducted theWest Point Chapel choir. His large frame, 6 feet 3 inches in height andweighing 240 pounds, was advantageous in athletics.
In his plebe year he wasgiven the nickname “Schwarzie,”. He has gained certain militaryrespect among the subordinates. He graduated 43rd of 480 in the class of 1956with a Bachelor of Engineering degree. Norman earned a Masters of Engineeringat the University of Southern California. 6.
PersonalCharacteristics. Heis very loyal and obedient character from his early child hood. And also he isvery assertive and protective to his sisters. Further not only those but alsohe is a very active athlete. These qualities are well justified by his childhood friends. More over little Norman Herbert Schwarzkopf is very much attachedto his father.
This fact given the chance to him to travel many countries alongwith his father because of his military attachments. Furthermore he is verykeen to acquire new knowledge in every aspect. As a result of that he learnt shooting,horseback riding, and hunting at the age of 12 years. Moreover he played on the football andwrestling teams. He was also a member of the chapel choir in his militaryacademy.
7. Career. Hewas accepted into the U.
S. Military Academy at West Point and was commissionedas a second lieutenant in the United States Army in 1956. His first assignmentwas as platoon leader, later executive officer, 2nd Airborne Battle Group,187th Airborne Infantry Regiment, and 101st Airborne Division at Fort Campbell,Kentucky. After a number of initial training programs, Schwarzkopf interrupteda stint as an academy teacher, and served in the Vietnam War first as anadviser to the South Vietnamese Army and later as a battalion commander. Wherehe emerge as a mentor to the young generation of cadets. Schwarzkopf was highlydecorated in Vietnam, being awarded three Silver Star Medals, two PurpleHearts, and the Legion of Merit. Rising through the ranks after the conflict,he later commanded the U.
S. 24th Infantry Division and was one of thecommanders of the Invasion of Grenada in 1983.Assumingcommand of United States Central Command in 1988, Schwarzkopf was called on torespond to the Invasion of Kuwait in 1990 by the forces of Iraq under SaddamHussein.
Initially tasked with defending Saudi Arabia from Iraqi aggression,Schwarzkopf’s command eventually grew to an international force of over 750,000troops. After diplomatic relations broke down, he planned and led OperationDesert Storm an extended air campaign followed by a highly successful 100-hourground offensive which destroyed the Iraqi Army and liberated Kuwait in early1991. Where he highly regarded for these exploits, Schwarzkopf became anational hero and was presented with many military honors for what historianstermed one of the most successful campaigns in U.S.
military history. Schwarzkopf retired shortly after the end of the warand undertook a number of philanthropic ventures, only occasionally steppinginto the political spotlight before his death from complications of pneumoniain late 2012 at the age of 78 years.8.
Competenceareas and major work. In1983 he was suddenly appoint as deputy commander for the Invasion of Grenada.At that time he had very little to say that because of his last minuteappointment. Nevertheless he took the challenge and guided the mission while onboard in the USS Guam which is an aircraft carrier with great difficulties fromneighbouring branches itself. The operation is merely success that because ofthe poor communication between different branches in the service. The operationgiven him a learning curve where he later push for several policies to jointcommanders operations. 1988 when he named as commander of the UnitedStates central Command.At that time he was well known among the others as a strategic leader and a commanderwho thinks more diplomacy when it comes to the war.
And also a hard-driving militarycommander with a strong temper. He was assigned to several missions which givesvery successful end results. Most of them are operations in Middle East. Thatis all because of he is a great leader and he had his child hood experience inthe region. a.
Subsequentlyhe is the master piece for Gulf war. When Iraqi Army invades Kuwait the westthoughts the next movement will be to invade Saudi Arabia in searching of Oil.At that point US Troops were deployed to Saudi Arabia under the command of General NormanSchwarzkopf. He used very aggressive military plans such direct over helm toopponent which initially got criticise by the Washington as suchuncreative. But later identified the master class which relays on him.b. AnotherSuccessfully operated mission is that the Operation desert storm and desertshield. While being deployed at Saudi Arabia with preparations works carryingout simultaneously to defend the Saudi Arabia with possible invade he receivesthe order from pentagon to avoid the Iraqis invasion to Kuwait.
Moreimportantly this mission was planned by him addressing both air campaign andground campaign. This mission involved heavy air campaign by achieving air superiority andground campaign by destroying possible supply chain to enemy strong holds. Asthe build up continued, Schwarzkopf was occupied with planning an offensiveoperation against the Iraqi units along the border, sometimes working 18-hourdays in planning, assisted by a close group of aides. This is a mission heplanned with based on overwhelming force and stronginfantry attacks supported by artillery and armour and also with the heavy airpower.
His strategically thinking pattern as military leader proven with theresult of this war by, within 42 days, his force had destroyed 42 of 50 IraqiArmy divisions and sent out the Saddam Husain Men’s out of the Kuwait. 9. Awards & Achievements. He wasawarded several medals such Defense Distinguished Service Medal, ArmyDistinguished Service Medal, Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Air ForceDistinguished Service Medal, Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medal, SilverStar, Defence Superior Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Distinguished FlyingCross, Bronze Star Medal, Purple Heart, Presidential Medal of Freedom,Congressional Gold Medal and Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath(Honorary) in recognition of his battlefield bravery. 10. Personal Life & Legacy. General Schwarzkopf maintained an activeschedule of speaking engagements. In later years, he used his fame to raisepublic awareness of prostate cancer.
In retirement, he enjoyed hunting, fishingand skeet shooting. He was a serious music lover whose tastes ran from grandopera to country and western. Norman and Brenda Schwarzkopf had three children:Cynthia, Jessica and Christian. General Schwarzkopf died of complications ofpneumonia in Tampa, Florida at the age of 78. analysis of the leadership style 11. The Leadership styleof the GeneralSchwarzkopf was strategic leadership style.
He always made the finaldecisions by considering timely suited strategic ideas. Each and every battlewhich he was commanded, he made the plan effectively and efficiently byengaging strategic thinking pattern with strategic mind. As a result, superiorstend to have high satisfaction, enthusiasm and high morale. However, when it isrequired he made his own effective decision making style, when it is needed tomake a quick decision. Advantages anddisadvantages in today’s environment 12. Military organizationsneed strong and capable strategic leaders who can motivate, coach, and inspirepeople to do strategic work that will help ensure the organization’s success over thelong term in battles. Subordinates at all levels in the military organizationlook to their leaders for direction and clues about how the future will unfoldand how they can add distinctive value to the organization and ensure itssuccess specially when it comes to the battle field. Beloware some specific advantages of strategic leadership.
c. Always Prepared. General Schwarzkopf wasalways prepared, regardless of how much work load over him. He generally drawsattention to on the way that a military man should each time expect the unforeseen.When we looking his life we can see it was not stream in exceptionally smoothway. Be that as it may, he arranged to confront any sort of circumstance. Sometime he needs to do air mission in awful atmosphere condition. In any case, heready to deal with all hash condition by being a prepared person.
At theOperation Gulf war he sometimes works for 18 hours continuously to prepare thewar plans. The personality of military leaders, is critical for success. Theirexemplary attitudes, abilities and performance shape the units subordinate tothem.
d. Set high standards. Too often we don’t askenough from people. At one point in Schwarzkopf’s career, he was placed incharge of helicopter maintenance. He asked how much of the fleet was able tofly on any given day.
The answer was 75%. “People didn’t come in at 74 or76, but always at 75, because that was the standard that had been set for them.I said, ‘I don’t know anything about helicopter maintenance, but I’mestablishing a new standard: 85%.’ ” Sure enough, within a short time 85%of the fleet was available on any given day. e.
Exemplary Behaviour. General Schwarzkopf trustedthat initiative essentially does not mean offering requests to thesubordinates. He guided from the front making his men acknowledged what theyare truly battling for. He visited the fight fronts, regiments and legions asregularly as could be allowed and satisfied what is required from him by hismen and the country. f. Positive ThinkingPatten. GeneralSchwarzkopf made it his business to be a positive,happy, and playful. He knew confidence, similar to cynicism, was infectious.
Bystaying positive and endeavouring to “mirror the bright assurance oftriumph” he trusted he could help individual and organization confidence.Military leaders should not glare, whimper, whine or mope. They should exhibitthat they are there for the bigger hierarchical mission and work to develop afeeling of hopefulness. Sullen may conducts negative effect that can bepossibly induced hierarchical disquietude. Resemble and ensure yourpeculiarities and address an uplifting positive thinking ability. 13.
There are somedisadvantages of Strategic Leadership can be seen with this leadership. g. Can Appear Uncertain.
Strategic leadership can sometimes comeacross as being indecisive. In certain situations, especially during a crisis,leaders must be very directive and Strategic leaders do not function well in anauthoritarian role. In the midst of a crisis, no time is usually available to thinkwell and act. LEADERS’PERFORMANCE VS. FOLLOWERS’ SATISFACTION 14. Because of thecontinuous visits he made to see his men, General Schwarzkopf knew that it was so testing to take up thetasks given. He was caring who esteemed the lives of his subordinate’s livesthan his own triumphant the hearts and worries of them consequently. He was aman of his words and frequently depicted in the matter of why the requests weregiven and what was behind them.
15. Victories would havebeen only a fantasy notwithstanding the unwaveringness the men had for him.They were ready to give up realizing that somebody is there to take care ofthem if any given hard situation. The leadership characters of Schwarzkopf were filled hissubordinates while fulfilling them on what they battled for.
LESSONS LEARNED AND RECOMMENDATIONS 16. Schwarzkopf is one of genius military leader.His views on preparing infrastructure and cutting down the supply chain werelater proved to be correct during the Operation desert shield. To weaken the supply,He ordered to destroy all the key strong holds in Iraq along with cut down thesupply chain to enemy force. He always applies to principles of war.
Further hetries to improve the soldiers’ welfare conditions, such as, better food, shelter,and more leaves to visit their families. Therefore he is one of the examplecharacters who show how to treat and care of subordinates to enhance theirmoral and performances. That was the secret behind his successful militarylife. It is one of good example for today’s military leaders also. RECOMMENDATIONS 17.
The Military Officersshould possess a sound knowledge on great leaders and their leadershipskills. By studding General Schwarzkopf leadership behaviours and co-valuethey can understand applicability of hisleadership styles for the present day context which will assist them to beleaders by building up individual’s leadership skills in their professionalcarrier in the future. As such, it isrecommended all military officers to study the General Schwarzkopf’s behaviour. 18.
Leaders are not simply born but they are trained in to what is expectedfrom them. Being in the military it is inevitable to mention that militarypersonnel are to be trained as per a leadership model. Reading and understandingthe attributes of great leaders in the history obviously make it easy toinculcate the war culture.
CONCLUSION 19. General Schwarzkopf is transcendentidentity, an uncommon character and leader of one out of an era. The initiativequalities that he had are very noteworthy and effectively unmatchable. Hedemonstrated the way that a man can turn into a military leader with a decentheart yet taking care of business from his subordinates as though they werebound to do as such. The admiration he transferred on individuals and theregard that he had for his nation are completely promising for us being in themilitary. It is unavoidable to say that it was an eye opener and had andenthusiastic connection with him and his traits while setting up this achievements. 20. The duty of themilitary superior is characterized by issuing orders and leading people, not byadministrating or supervising.
The latter may include the former but at thesame time goes beyond it. Schwarzkopfas a military superior had clearly more far-reaching powers andauthorities than their counterparts in civilian organizations. Non-compliancewith an order, for instance, is considered disobedience and will at leastresult in a disciplinary action being taken. The integration into a strict hierarchy,General Schwarzkopf’s extensiveauthority, which reaches as far as the subordinate’s leisure time and personallife, and the high degree of control make the military resemble whicheverything referred to as a total institution.