1. How Did The World Come To DevelopNuclear Weapons? German scientists discovered thatthe nucleus of an atom could break into two fragments, a reaction that releasesneutrons that could break up more atoms in seconds, releasing a vast amount ofenergy in the process. This process is known as fission.
These scientiststhought that the fission process could be weaponized and used in a uraniumbomb. In October 1939, shortly after World War II had begun in Europe, AlbertEinstein and Leo Szilard wrote the US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, tellinghim that a very powerful bomb could be made using the forces of nuclear fissionand that there was a high risk that Germans would develop it first. The twoscientists had fled Nazi Germany and were afraid that Hitler would develop sucha weapon, which would make him have power over his enemies.
Roosevelt agreed that it was necessaryto develop an atomic bomb. In 1942, through a massive and secret project dubbedthe ‘Manhattan Project,’ the UnitedStates and the United Kingdom combined forcesfor the next 3 years to develop the world’s first nuclear weapon. The project costover the US $2 billion and employed over200,000 workers and thousands of scientists and engineers. It was tested on 16thJuly 1945 in New Mexico.
Nuclear weapons are one of the mostpowerful weapons available to humans for energy released. Only two nuclearweapons have thus far been used for war purposes in human history; detonated bythe United States on Hiroshima, and Nagasaki. The Manhattan Project was startedduring World War II with the intention of making an atomic weapon for theUnited States. Today’s nuclear weapons are over 200x more powerful.2. What Difficulties Were Overcome ByScientists And Engineers When Building The Atomic Bomb? Building the atomic bomb was achallenging project because firstly, the scientists and engineers had noprevious experience to rely on. Secondly, developing the necessary quantity ofunstable isotopes and the right quantity of uranium and other core componentsthat were required to create a powerful atomic bomb necessitated immenseknowledge in the fields of nuclear physics, chemistry, and engineering(Moses, 2009). Building the atomic bomb was verydifficult and sometimes the experiments would fail after hundreds of hours andmillions of dollars had been spent.
A large team of scientists and engineerswas involved in the building of the atomic bomb, and therefore they had toconsolidate their several ideas and through years of trial and error, developan effective bomb. Developing the bomb as a large team while managing to keepit secret was also a major challenge that the creators of the first atomic bombovercame. 3. What Ethical Consequences Did TheScientists Involved Have To Consider While Working On The Atomic Bomb? As the Manhattan Project progressed,and thousands of scientists and engineers joined the project, their mainconcern became how to develop the most effective nuclear weapon and there wasless concern on the destructive effect that this weapon could cause. Somescientists, however, considered dropping out of the project realizing that thiswas a weapon that would cause massive destruction and alter the course ofhistory. The atomic bomb was a scientificdiscovery that could cause massive and irrecoverable destruction. Nuclearweapons have the potential to alter the entire ecosystem of the world.
This posedthe dilemma of the ethicality of using scientific discoveries to causedevastating destruction, as opposed to making discoveries that would change theworld in a positive way. As such, the scientists needed to use it only insituations where the risk was considered significant enough and unavoidable. Theuse of atomic weapons would cause more devastating problems than it wouldaddress. This is clearly illustrated by the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki,where over 300,000 innocent people lost their lives.
Murdering people in such amanner is inhumane and intolerable.4. State Your Opinions About JustificationOf Using The Nuclear Weapons. How Do You See The Future Of Nuclear Power? In a civilized world where there areother options for ending war such asnegotiating and signing treaties to call a ceasefire, nuclear weapons shouldnot be used or created. Using nuclear weapons is excessive since it causes moreproblems than it purports to solve. Innocentlives are lost and the environment it also greatly destroys the environment.
Oneof the justifications the US gave for the use of the nuclear weapons was thatthe leadership of Japan had refused to surrender. This justification is skewedbecause Japan was already severely weakened by side attacks from differentcountries and therefore it did not require such great force to make the leaderssurrender. Furthermore, it was unethical to drop the bombs on Japan because theconflict was between the leadership of the United States and Japan, and shouldhave been sorted out in a manner that would save lives as opposed toendangering lives. However, the United States went ahead with the bombings andas a result, hundreds of thousands ofinnocent civilians bore the full brunt of the atomic bombing (Sovacool, 2011).The effects of this bombing are still felt to this day. The United Statesprimarily wanted to prove to the world that it was a supreme power, thereforedropping the bomb was motivated by self-serving reasons.
Nuclear power if harnessed for theright reasons can be a major solution to climate change because it emitscarbon-free energy. Additionally, well operated nuclear plants are reliablesources of power because of their lower down times.