1. weapon. The project cost over the US

1. How Did The World Come To Develop
Nuclear Weapons?

            German scientists discovered that
the nucleus of an atom could break into two fragments, a reaction that releases
neutrons that could break up more atoms in seconds, releasing a vast amount of
energy in the process. This process is known as fission. These scientists
thought that the fission process could be weaponized and used in a uranium
bomb. In October 1939, shortly after World War II had begun in Europe, Albert
Einstein and Leo Szilard wrote the US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, telling
him that a very powerful bomb could be made using the forces of nuclear fission
and that there was a high risk that Germans would develop it first. The two
scientists had fled Nazi Germany and were afraid that Hitler would develop such
a weapon, which would make him have power over his enemies.

            Roosevelt agreed that it was necessary
to develop an atomic bomb. In 1942, through a massive and secret project dubbed
the ‘Manhattan Project,’ the United
States and the United Kingdom combined forces
for the next 3 years to develop the world’s first nuclear weapon. The project cost
over the US $2 billion and employed over
200,000 workers and thousands of scientists and engineers. It was tested on 16th
July 1945 in New Mexico.

            Nuclear weapons are one of the most
powerful weapons available to humans for energy released. Only two nuclear
weapons have thus far been used for war purposes in human history; detonated by
the United States on Hiroshima, and Nagasaki. The Manhattan Project was started
during World War II with the intention of making an atomic weapon for the
United States. Today’s nuclear weapons are over 200x more powerful.

2. What Difficulties Were Overcome By
Scientists And Engineers When Building The Atomic Bomb?

            Building the atomic bomb was a
challenging project because firstly, the scientists and engineers had no
previous experience to rely on. Secondly, developing the necessary quantity of
unstable isotopes and the right quantity of uranium and other core components
that were required to create a powerful atomic bomb necessitated immense
knowledge in the fields of nuclear physics, chemistry, and engineering(Moses, 2009). Building the atomic bomb was very
difficult and sometimes the experiments would fail after hundreds of hours and
millions of dollars had been spent. A large team of scientists and engineers
was involved in the building of the atomic bomb, and therefore they had to
consolidate their several ideas and through years of trial and error, develop
an effective bomb. Developing the bomb as a large team while managing to keep
it secret was also a major challenge that the creators of the first atomic bomb
overcame.

3. What Ethical Consequences Did The
Scientists Involved Have To Consider While Working On The Atomic Bomb?

            As the Manhattan Project progressed,
and thousands of scientists and engineers joined the project, their main
concern became how to develop the most effective nuclear weapon and there was
less concern on the destructive effect that this weapon could cause. Some
scientists, however, considered dropping out of the project realizing that this
was a weapon that would cause massive destruction and alter the course of
history.

            The atomic bomb was a scientific
discovery that could cause massive and irrecoverable destruction. Nuclear
weapons have the potential to alter the entire ecosystem of the world. This posed
the dilemma of the ethicality of using scientific discoveries to cause
devastating destruction, as opposed to making discoveries that would change the
world in a positive way. As such, the scientists needed to use it only in
situations where the risk was considered significant enough and unavoidable. The
use of atomic weapons would cause more devastating problems than it would
address. This is clearly illustrated by the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki,
where over 300,000 innocent people lost their lives. Murdering people in such a
manner is inhumane and intolerable.

4. State Your Opinions About Justification
Of Using The Nuclear Weapons. How Do You See The Future Of Nuclear Power?

            In a civilized world where there are
other options for ending war such as
negotiating and signing treaties to call a ceasefire, nuclear weapons should
not be used or created. Using nuclear weapons is excessive since it causes more
problems than it purports to solve. Innocent
lives are lost and the environment it also greatly destroys the environment. One
of the justifications the US gave for the use of the nuclear weapons was that
the leadership of Japan had refused to surrender. This justification is skewed
because Japan was already severely weakened by side attacks from different
countries and therefore it did not require such great force to make the leaders
surrender. Furthermore, it was unethical to drop the bombs on Japan because the
conflict was between the leadership of the United States and Japan, and should
have been sorted out in a manner that would save lives as opposed to
endangering lives. However, the United States went ahead with the bombings and
as a result, hundreds of thousands of
innocent civilians bore the full brunt of the atomic bombing (Sovacool, 2011).
The effects of this bombing are still felt to this day. The United States
primarily wanted to prove to the world that it was a supreme power, therefore
dropping the bomb was motivated by self-serving reasons.

            Nuclear power if harnessed for the
right reasons can be a major solution to climate change because it emits
carbon-free energy. Additionally, well operated nuclear plants are reliable
sources of power because of their lower down times.