12AP Bio Assignment: Population Dynamics & Ecology Knowledge/Understanding:a) Population dynamics: The study of how change in population size is influenced by biological and environmental processes b) Population density: The measure of population per kilometer of land c) Mark-recapture sampling: A sampling technique in which is used to estimate the size of animal population d) Survivorship curves: Graphs that depict the relative survival rates of an organism at a specific agee) Shannon diversity: A qualitative measure (H) that calculates the abundance of a species within a community f) Mullerian mimicry: Two or more unrelated noxious species that developed a biological resemblance g) Batesian mimicry: A harmless species mimics the appearance of a poisonous or harmful specifies to their predators h) Invasive species: A non-native species that is brought into a new ecosystem usually by humans i) Mutualism: A symbiotic relationship in which benefits both species j) Commensalism: A symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits while the other is not affected k) Parasitism: A symbiotic relationship in which the parasite lives within its host and usually harms itl) Ecological footprint: A person’s or community’s impact on the environment m) Fecundity: The ability to produce an abundant amount of offspring n) Critical load: The maximum amount of nutrients that a plant can absorb without damaging ecosystem integrity o) Biological magnification: Process where higher concentrations of toxic substances increase at each higher trophic level of the food chainp) Sustainable development: The demands of the people today that won’t limit the ability of the future generations to meet their needs 2. Density Dependent FactorsDensity Independent FactorsRegulates growth of population depending on its density Usually operate in large populations E.g food, diseases, shelter, competition Regulates growth of population without depending on its density Can operate in both large and small populations E.g droughts, tornadoes, extreme temperature, fires3. Clumped Dispersion -The tendency for a population to be found in several tight clusters. – There are very few to no individuals found in between these tight clusters -Provides protection, mating and herding of natural resources necessary for survival -E.g elephants, lions, wolvesUniform Dispersion -The tendency for a population to be evenly distributed across an ecosystem -Species can survive anywhere in their habitat -Allows for the collection of all available resources -Individuals must compete for limited resources -E.g desert shrubs, redwood trees, damselfish Random Dispersion -The tendency for a population to be found randomly distributed within a habitat -Immotile species cannot control where they grow -Motile species can survive anywhere within the habitat independently -E.g Oyster larvae, swan plants, mistletoes 4. Net Population Growth = Births – Death = bN – mN = (13/1000)(1.3 ?109) – (7/1000)(1.3 ?109) = 16900000 – 9100000 = 7800000 ?The net population growth that year was 7800000 peopleI think China is experiencing exponential growth of the drastic increase in population over a year. 5. a) dNdt= rmaxNK-NK b) Population size: 50 d(50)dt= (1.2)50700-50700 = 3907 ? 55.71 Population size: 100 d(100)dt= (1.2)100700-100700 = 7207 ? 102.86 Population size: 200 d(200)dt= (1.2)200700-200700 = 12007 ? 171.43 Population size: 400 d(400)dt= (1.2)400700-400700 = 14407 ? 205.71 Population size: 800 d(800)dt= (1.2)800700-800700 = -9607 ? -137.14 Population size: 1600 d(1600)dt= (1.2)1600700-1600700 = -172807 ? -2468.576. a) Seahorses appear similar to the marine plants that they live amongst. Camouflageb) A poisonous frog species has strikingly coloured skin. Aposematic coloration c) A butterfly’s wings are shaped exactly like plant leaves. Camouflage d) Two species of venomous snakes have similar colour patterns. Mullerian mimicry e) Cacti have sharp needles covering them. Mechanical defence f) A non-poisonous type of moth looks similar to a poisonous moth.Batesian mimicry 7. a) Maximizing the carrying capacity affects the moose prey more than the wolf predator. This is because the moose purely feeds on what nature provides, plants, while wolves depend on the moose for food. Compared to the wolves, moose can obtain food much more easier and faster because plants and water are the most abundant in the ecosystem. Wolves on the other hand, must hunt for their food which takes more time. Hence, the moose population is able to grow and reproduce faster, having a high birth rate and lower natural death rate. As the moose population increases, wolves will also have an increased food supply. With more food supply available in the ecosystem, the wolves’ ability to catch prey is facilitated. This will consequently lead to a decrease in prey, but an increase later on because the moose population food supply is always more abundant than the wolves. b) By increasing the wolf population’s effectiveness, the moose population decreases. This is because for every hunting attempt, the wolf will have a higher success rate which increases their intake of food. As the wolves are able to consume more, their growth rate and birth rate increases. However, when moose population is too low, the wolf population also gradually decreases because they aren’t able to flourish with the lack of food. When the moose population increases again, wolves will again increase in population and will decrease the moose population again. c) Maximizing the death rate of the predator will not kill them off because the moose population is high. This means that even if there are very few wolves left, there are still chances for them to flourish and increase birth rate as long as prey is still available for them to feed on. d) The predator population has a direct relationship with the prey population. If preypopulation increases, predator population increases but not proportionally. This will also happen vice versa. A direct relationship occurs because when there is a high amount of food supply for the predator to feed on, the number of predator will gradually begins to increase and the predator will flourish due to the abundant amount of prey preventing them from starvation and allowing for healthy growth which decreases death rate and increase birth rate as more adult predators are alive. When prey population is low, there is an increase in death rate of the predator because there isn’t much prey for them to hunt. This prevents them from flourishing and increase death rate because their food source, are no longer available to them, increasing the chances of them starving. e) Maximizing the habitat variability essentially decreases both the number of prey and predator. When density-independent and density-dependent factors are at their extreme, animal species can be directly killed or resources are destroyed. When resources are damaged, the animal species who rely on it most is most affected. In this case, it is the prey who lives a herbivore lifestyle. The prey population will hence, starve without food which decreases their ability to survive, reproduce, increasing their death rate. Not to mention, when the prey decreases, the predator will also have lower food supply which also causes a decrease in their population. f) After many generations, the original prey population will have no effect on the predator-prey cycling because once the prey population reaches its maximum carrying capacity, the ecosystem will no longer be able to support it. causing a decline in its numbers. However, the prey population will always gradually increase because food source is almost always available to them. As their numbers begin to increase, predator population will also increase, in which where the predator-prey cycling will then occur.Communication:8. Exponential Models Logistic Models SummaryDepicts population growth over time while taking carrying capacity into account. Depicts population growth over time without taking carrying capacity into account. Labelled Sketch Equation dNdt= rmaxNN = population sizermax = maximum rate of increase t = time interval dNdt= rmaxNK-NKN = population sizermax = maximum rate of increase t = time interval K = carrying capacityLimitations Assumes that resources are unlimitedAssumes that population changes instantly to growth and its approach to the carrying capacity is smoothExamples Fruit flyBacteriaYeastSheepHarbor seals9. The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is a world-renown organization who supports research in developing countries with the goal of overcoming global challenges such as poverty, gender inequality and climate change. Their involvements include providing funds and training in developing countries to resolve local problems, collaborating with researchers around the world, and advocating for the awareness of global challenges.The organization hopes to build leaders all over the world in hopes of bringing a positive change in humanity. The International Development Research Centre’s projects include, Women supporting women: Networked civic engagement to foster effective women’s leadership for inclusive policymaking, Canada-South Africa trilateral research chair in nanomaterials for clean water, Building parliamentary research capacity: The case of Shan state’s sub-national parliament in Myanmar and 1734 other projects around the world. They have been successful with many projects including one held in African countries. By funding and providing necessary resources, they have trained researchers and professionals to access valuable medical information that can be used to improve the services they provide to patients.10. The Aboriginals perspective on the environment was to always conserve resources in order to sustain the environment. They would fish, hunt, and harvest but at the same time, only collect a sufficient amount of resources necessary for survival. Deep considerations were made before using up Earth’s resources. They would observe the growth, and reproduction cycle of the plants and animals before making the decision on how much resource is to be collected. Their strategies helped to maintain a sustainable environment for several generations and minimum interruptions In earth’s natural cycles and patterns. This includes but are not limited to the agricultural cycle, water cycle, and nitrogen cycle. Currently, many indigenous communities are focused on minimizing the cause to global warming and climate change. They are implementing several projects in encourage the use of renewable energy rather now nonrenewable. Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) have been working together since 2001 to establish programs focused on addressing the effects of climate change adaptation as well as other issues related to climate change. One of the projects that they work on is, “The Northern Responsible Energy Approach for Community Heat and Electricity program.” This programs objective is to reduce reliance of diesel for heating and electricity and promote other alternatives such as solar, wind and biomass instead. Application:11. a) 2011-2021, 2041-2051 b) 2031-2041 c) 1941- 1951 d) Based on future forecasts, it seems that birthrates are gradually decreasing. This is an issue because when the time comes, adults born in the more recent years will need to pay more taxes to support the larger number of seniors on the population pyramid. This is a problem because there are less eligible people compared to the abundant amount of seniors. The amounts that the adults need to pay would be greater than if there were more of them to share the cost. 12. Hybrid cars are alternative vehicles that operate with an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. The biggest advantage of hybrid cars are the benefits that it has on the environment. Regular cars today are not efficient in the way that they emit high levels of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen gas. However, because of the motor engine installed in the car, hybrid cars are known to have better gas mileage. The motor engine plays a role in supplying extra power for the car for the car to run. This allows for reduced fuel consumption, reducing how much resource is being acquired from earth and how much pollution is emitted. Another advantage is that the car will solely depend on its electric motor when driving at slow speeds. Again, this provides the same benefits as the previously mentioned advantage as well as the advantage of saving money on gas. Financially, a lot of money is saved when using a hybrid car. Hybrid cars run of less fuel, helping the owner save plenty on gas money. If long term financial problems is a concern, one should consider a hybrid car over a regular because of the reduced gas purchased but know that the cost of purchasing the car is much more than a gas-powered car. Unfortunately, hybrid cars have shown to have its own disadvantages as well. A big disadvantage of the hybrid car is its cost. Hybrid cars can cost couple thousands more than a regular car. With the current economy state, many people are not financially stable enough to purchase this type of car. Not to mention, due to its battery, maintenance fees are much more costly than it is for a regular car. Another disadvantage is that it is less powerful than gas-powered cars. This is noticeable when the driver is trying to accelerate at high speeds and is mainly caused by its smaller engine and the lower power in the electric motor. Based on research, hybrid cars require much more energy to produce. The manufacturing process burns more fossil fuels than gas-powered cars, emitting higher levels of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. In my opinion, hybrid cars barely serve any benefits to the environment. If hybrid cars are harmful to make, but beneficial to use and conventional cars, they aren’t that much greener than the typical cars we use now. If there was to be a mass production of hybrid cars, the effects that it has on the environment is much worse and even though, it is beneficial to the environment during the long run, the damage it causes in the manufacturing process does not make up for it. Hence, in my opinion, hybrid cars are not as green as companies make it seem. Buying a gas-powered car and hybrid car still produces a lot of pollution no matter in what process. 13. a) India, Canada, United States, China, Russia b) Norway, Sweden Denmark, Switzerland, Romania c) The factors that affect ecological footprint are population, socioeconomic status and education. Firstly, population plays a role on its country’s ecological footprint because as population increases, more resources are needed to support them and naturally, this will increase the production of waste material and harmful chemicals into the environment. Countries with population however, have less people that the environment must support. This allows for less resource usage and less waste production. Similarly, socioeconomic status gives the ability for wealthier countries to obtain resources in their country as well as internationally much for easier. With money, countries can increase industrialization, speeding up and maximizing the production of certain materials. This however, affects the country’s control of how much resource they are collecting from the earth as well as the levels of waste emissions they are producing. 14. (1) We can preserve biodiversity in our local community by helping to clean and protect animal habitats. These habitats lie within common places such as the park, introducing harmful toxins and contaminants on their homes. This is harmful to organisms in many ways, from increasing chances of internally damaging their organs through ingestion or by directly, physically destroying the structure of it. By cleaning up litter and advocating the prevention of litter, a variety of organisms can flourish in a clean environment, preserving biodiversity. (2) Canadians can preserve biodiversity by encouraging reforestation. By planting for trees, not only does it provide an abundant amount of oxygen necessary for living organisms’ survival, but it also provides a habitat and food source for animal species and humans. Because in present day, industrialization has taken much of Canada’s land, more plants are needed to “clean” the air by intaking the excess carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen. This will preserve biodiversity because organisms will not get sick and slowly die off. Similarly, trees and plants provide a habitat and food source for majority of the animals. If reforestation was to take place, this will allow organisms to settle stably in our country with the necessary resources available to them. (3) Internationally, everyone is able to preserve biodiversity by stopping the entrance of invasive species into a new ecosystem. Invasive species are known to cause damage to a new environment through harming the native species and overall interfering with the food chain. When invasive species are introduced, they can kill off a prey of a predator, which will eventually create competition with the predator for food. Invasive species may also kill of the predators, leaving a drastic increase in prey. Nonetheless, it will disturb the equilibrium of an ecosystem. Hence, if everyone in the world didn’t bring along nonnative species into a country while travelling, biodiversity will be preserved because there will be no competition with the native species that can possibly affect their ability to thrive in their ecosystem. 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