2.0 Introduction In Malaysia, ulams are well known as animportant part of meal which usually been consumed daily with the rice by theMalay people. Ulam also known as Malay salad. It can be explained as any plantpart like shoot,stem,seed,leaves,fruits or flowers which can be eaten boiled orraw. Theulam is known to have many benefits tothose who consume it. As ulam can beeaten raw, the content of the minerals and vitamins for example the calcium(Ca), Phosphorus (P), Sodium(Na), Iron (Fe) and Potassium (K) are very highcompared to the cooked vegetables.The ulam is also contain a phytochemicalssuch as phenolics and flavonoid which is a good source of antioxidant (Andriana C. Kaliora, 2015).
Ulamalso provides fiber which is needed by the human digestive system.In Malaysia,more that 120 types of plant are consume as ulam which comes from various ofplants family.Those plants are usually comes from various type of plants like shrub, seasonal plants or herbs.Ulam also can be categorised into four types which is the popular ulam, less-popular ulam, thetraditional ulam and also the non-traditional ulam. Thepopular ulam are the ulam that easy to be found and can be easily consume.Example for for the popular ulam is the Indianpennywort(Centella asiatica) and winged bean ( Psophocarpus tetragonolobus). The less-popular ulam are the ulam which are hardly found and lee consume by people for example theroselle leaves (Hibiscus sabdariffa).
Thetraditional ulam are the ulam which istraditionally been cunsumed by the Malay generations for a long time and itgrows widely in villages or forests while the non-traditional ulam are the ulamwhich are not from the origin for example the cucumbers,cabbages and carrots. Manystudies have been conducted on the antioxidant content of salads ( ulam). The study shows that the high content ofantioxidant brings many benefits for human health.
The antioxidant content invegetables can help in fight against cancer, inflammation and also otherdiseases ( (Farooq Anwar, 2010). Different assays are used to test the antioxidant activity of the ulamwere conducted using the different solvent. The previous study have shown thatthe extraction process to test the antioxidant activity using aqueous solvent(80% methanol) is more efficient compared to the pure solvent (100%methanol).
This is due to the highability of aqueous solvent to extract maximum amount of antioxidant componentcompared to the pure solvent (Farooq Anwar, 2010). 2.0 Literature review2.1 Morphology of ulam2.
1.1 Nangka( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Nangkawhich is also known as a jackfruit is a species from the family of Moraceae. Thisjackfruit is classified as a large tropical tree which is natives to South India (Kexue Zhua, 2016).
The Artocarpusheterophyllus is very well suited to the tropical lowlands. It is usuallycultivated at low and medium altitudes.Artocarpus heterophyllus arecultivated in most of the tropical countries.
This jackfruit also can be foundin India to the Malay country.It is known as the largest borne fruit. Thisfruit can reach as much as 35kg (80lb)in weight, 90cm (35in) in lenght and 50cm (20in) in diameter. Its tree usuallygrows and can reach up to 8 to 15 meters. Thenangka leaves are usually leathery and the leaves are arrange alternately.Italso have a elliptic-oblong to obovate in shape. It has two sepals and hasnumerous seeds.
The young fruit of the Artocarpus heterophyllus is alsoa vegetables. The jackfruit is proven from the previous study that the pulp ofthe jackfruit contain high value of carotenoid that is very important for humanhealth (G. Ruiz-Montañez a, 2014). Thecolour of the pulp is yellow,tastes sweet and have aromatic scent. This jackfruit are richin vitamin C , can be eaten fresh, cooked or preserved. The pulp and seeds ofthe jackfruit contain a cooling effects.
It is also have been used as apectorial and also a tonic. Besides, the jackfruit also have a antibacterialflavones (M.R. Khan*, 2003).
2.1.2 Peria pantai (Colubrina asiatica)Colubrina asiatica is a shrub from the familyRhamnaceae.
This plant is natives from the eastern Africa to India,southeastAsia,tropical Australia and the pacific islands. The C.asiatica have asimple,alternate,glossy ovate and acuminate leaves which is 3.7cm-13.7cm(1.5-5.4in) long.
Several of them has prominent veins. The leaf margins of the C.asiaticaare wavy. It has a small flower, greenish in colour and it bloom in clusters inleaf axils. The C.asiatica fruits are 1.3cm(0.
5in) and has a berry-likestructure with small,gray seeds. 2.1.3 Murunggai leaf ( Moringa oleifera) The Moringaoleifera is the plant species from the family Moringaceae. This plant is natives to the Himalayan region. The Moringaoleifera are widely cultivated in tropical and also subtropical region. Theyoung leaves and seed pods are widely used as vegetables.
This plant alsopopular used in a herbal medicine. The Moringa oleifera is afast-growing plant. It is a deciduous tree, where this plant can reach upto10-12m. The young shoots of the Moringa oleifera has agreenish-white in colour. It has afragrant –smell flower.
The flower if the Moringa oleifera is abisexual. It has a yellowish-white petals. The petals are thinly veined andunequal. This plant begin to flowering in six months period after the plantingtime. The fruit of the Moringa oleifera is hanging over,has athree-sided brown capsule. The seeds of the Moringa oleifera aredispersed by the wind and water. The seeds have three wings which is theadvantage for it to easily dispersed by the wind. Moringa oleifera are very widely usedin the traditional medicine.
The Moringa oleifera is known toimprove the nutrition in the body (Leone et al 2008) . This plant also known tohave a very effective in anti-septic effect and also detergent properties. 2.2 Antioxidant assays2.2.1 Free Radical Scavenging activity Thefree radical scavenging activity is one of the antioxidant test method usingthe 2,2-Diphenyl-picryldydrazyl (DPPH) assay.
The DPPH assay is widely used in antioxidant studies becauseof its characteristics which is very sensitive with a simple method. The DPPHis very sensitive to the light. The preparation of the DPPH solution must beaway from the light sources. The DPPH is prepared in the dark surrounding.
TheSchott laboratory bottle containing the DPPH solution must be wrap with thealuminium foil to avoid it expose to the light sources. DPPH is the organicnitrogen radicals which acts in receiving the hydrogen atom from theantioxidant. 3.0 Discussion Thefree radical scavenging activity of three types of ulam used (Artocarpusheterophyllus, Colubrina asiatica and Moringa oleifera) wasconducted and was determined at 515nm. The results of the free radicalscavenging activity will be determined base on the value of DPPH test ( IC50value). Thefree radical scavenging activity was determined by using the Thermo ScientificMultiskan Spectrum.The 96-well plate, each contain the different types of ulamused were added with DPPH solution to test for free radical scavengingactivity.
The high value of free radical scavenging activity will determined thehigh antioxidant content of ulam type. High antioxidant content in certain typeof ulam means that ulam is the best among others. Inthis experiment conducted, we used the distilled water,50% methanol and ethanoland also 100% methanol and ethanol as a solvent. According to the previousstudy, the free radical scavenging activity test will results in the high valuein less pure solvent than the pure solvent. The previous study shown that thefree radical scavenging activity value in 80% methanol used has a high valuecompare to the pure methanol used. It is because the varied in polarity of thesolvent used. The aqueous solvent has the ability to extract maximum amount ofantioxidant component compare to the pure solvent (Farooq Anwar, 2010). For the Total phenolic content (TPC) thesame step were used as in the free radical scavenging activity.
Based oh theprevious study, the TPC result also shown the same as the free radicalscavenging activity. The TPC content high in aqueous solvent than the puresolvent used (M. Amzad Hossain *, 2015).
TheTPC typically will measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The TPC resultcan be calculated using the formula of C (GAE) = c x V/M where we calculate theamount of the gallic acid content. Thenext test is the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The FRAP absorbancevalue were tested at 593nm.The FRAP assay is also an assay which test theantioxidant power or capacity. The FRAP assay is very famous one because it isa very simple method and fast result.
The FRAP value of the ulam tested willdetermine the antioxidant ability of that ulam.From the experiment conducted,the ulam that have the high value of the FRAP is known to have a goodantioxidant ability compare to the other ulam. Next is the metal chelating (MC) test. The metal chelating in one typeof the secondary antioxidant.The chelation process is the process where thetoxic heavy metals are being remove from the body (Pachauri, 2010). The MC is determined where the high value of MCproves that it has a high antioxidant ability.
The ulam with the high MC areknown the best at chelating process compared to other ulam. 4.0 Conclusion Asthe ulam, or salad are mostly being consume raw, it contain a high antioxidantproperty compared to the vegetables that were cooked. The ulam that have a highfree radical scavenging activity value is important as it can give manybenefits to the human health. Theulam that have a high value of the free radical scavenging activity is prove tohave a good antioxidant activity compared to the ulam with low free radicalscavenging activity value. As ulam can be eaten raw, the content of theminerals and vitamins for example the calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Sodium(Na),Iron (Fe) and Potassium (K) are very high compared to the cooked vegetables.
5.0 ReferencesFarooq Anwar, *. 1.(2010). Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barleyseeds(Hordeum vulgare L.
): stabilization of sunflower oil. Pakistan:1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture,Faisalabad-38040, Pakistan.2Department of Chemistry, Government CollegeUniversity. Faisalabad-38000, Pakistan.3Department of Chemistry, University ofSargodha, Sargodha-40100, Pakistan.G.
Ruiz-Montañez a,A. B.-H.-S.-S.-C.-O.-S.
(2014). Screening antimutagenic and antiproliferativeproperties of extracts isolated from Jackfruit pulp ( Artocarpus heterophyllusLam). Food Chemistry.Kexue Zhua, Y.
Z.(2016). Physicochemical properties and in vitro antioxidant activitiesofpolysaccharide from Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. pulp. CarbohydratePolymers.
M. Amzad Hossain *,M. D. (2015). A study on the total phenols content and antioxidant activity ofessential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic plant Merremiaborneensis. Arabian Journal of Chemistry.
M.R. Khan*, A. O.
(2003). Antibacterial activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Fitoterapia 74(2003) 501–505.Pachauri, S. J.(2010). Chelation in Metal Intoxication. International Journal ofEnvironmental Research and Public Health, 2-4.
Andriana C.Kaliora, C. B. (2015). Nutritional evaluation and functional properties oftraditional composite salad dishes. LWT – Food Science and Technology.