A good literature review is
important to show that researcher is knowledgeable about the problem area and
has done the preliminary homework that is necessary to conduct the research. In
this chapter, the researcher will do some explaining regarding all the
variables which are the dependent variable and independent variables.
SOCIAL MEDIA RISKS THROUGH INFORMATION SHARING
One of the later progression in
Internet’s antiquity has been web-based social sites, fundamentally, a
Web-based method of discourse that uses a wide cluster of apparatuses, sites,
and different applications to empower correspondence between entity,
partnerships, non-benefits, and alternative associations (Wendy, 2017). She
added that, Web-based social sites really envelop a wide range of advancements,
yet the fundamental objectives of these channels are the same, which is to
strengthen connection. As there are a wide variety of social media formats and
delivery methods, she listed out a wide array of how users communicate; E-mail,
blogging, sharing images, instant messaging and so on.
Online sharing has taken over, with
a wide range and sorts of records accessible at simply the snap of a catch, and
most of the files shared are not always legal. The most concern that needed to
be emphasized on is that online sharing may be through malware software, the
chance of one identity to be stolen by untrusted sources, and some sources
might prompt to enable them to penetrate through the firewall which could lead
to cyberattack such as hack (Equifax, 2016).
The persistent development of new
media has implied that data users are currently far less obligated to what goes
through traditional social guardians and can sidestep those guardians inside
and out and shift immediately to prime data sources, a considerable lot of
which are data users themselves (David, Patric & Brandon, 2012). Such
social media guardians mentioned are journalists, advertisers and also editors.
According to Joanna Belbey (2015),
botches are somewhat continually to happen when occupying oneself directly with
the public. At work, employees may likewise be hacked on the grounds that they
trust kindred individuals from their own circle of online networking clients
and might be deceived by fraudsters.
The human desire to stay connected
is indeed the most powerful aspect than anything else. The existence of Social
Media sites has encouraged online behaviour where privacy is not always the
first priority. People share news, information, pictures and experiences, and
by doing this they can build and maintain relationships as well as create new
connections that they would have otherwise never met or worked with.
Nowadays, many Social Media users
have been sharing their location on the social platforms, just to let them know
their whereabouts. The service for sharing their location with others is called
the Location Based Services, or known as LBS. Alongside a large number of
advantages, locational information from LBS, similar to some other type of
spatial information, builds up potential privacy concern (Jayakrishnan & Kambiz,
People often put a thought in their
mind that their current location is not as sensitive information. By sharing
locations, it tells people your whereabouts, and the place you are not at (O.
Andy, 2017). The consequences for doing so could be worst. When others
know where you are currently standing, they might use that information to go
against you. The same goes to other aspects that may relate to sharing of
Other than sharing location on
social media, it is also dangerous to post one’s pictures online. The enjoyment
of sharing pictures through social sites and blogs is incontestable, and so are
the risks. Pictures that were posted are not only vulnerable to be stolen, but
photos that are taken by mobile or devices that has GPS built-in, contains
labels that uncover precisely where the photographs were snapped (Kimberly,
2013). Metadata is a type of information that is incorporated on all recordings
and pictures, and is used to store data about that information, such as date of
photo taken, photographic details and coordinates. Apparent metadata in shared
media is a danger to guiltless subject who might want to keep their data, such
as their residential address, preferred locations, and working place, as
private information (Kambiz & John, 2017).
Social privacy is about the control
of an individual data from being visible by the undesired entity or viewers of
those they did not want to acknowledge their personal information. In the world
of employment, 60% of employers adopt the use of social sites to probe on
candidates and more than 25% of them expressed that their content has incited a
denouncing or termination (Metin, 2017).
2.3 MOTIVATIONS TO SHARE
Humans just love to share. It is
like their very nature to post every single thing that happens in their life.
The New York Times (2011) stated that there are 6 types of character of people
who share information, such as those who are: essentially roused by a want to
convey significant materials to those they care about and to tell them that
they are considering them and that they care (altruist), like to
cooperate materials and individuals in ways that are important and noteworthy (careerist),
like to jump at the chance to begin a discussion, verbal confrontation or
contention, and want to develop an online character and remain associated with
the world (hipsters), inspired basically by the response they get once
more from sharing (boomerangs), particularly appreciate sharing
substance that is engaging (connectors), and shares data that they feel
will be significant to a specific individual, and just in the event that they
figure the beneficiary would not have discovered it all alone (selectives).
Other than that, The Social Medias have long been used by humans to share information
that either they know, or they received. The process
of motivation consists of three stages: a felt need or drive, a stimulus in
which needs have to be aroused and when needs are satisfied, the satisfaction
or accomplishment of goals. However, when people felt too motivated, it can
apparently affect their mental condition. Alice G. Walton (2017) has
listed out 6 ways that the social media can affect the mental health:
obsession, decline in health, comparing with other’s lives, feelings of
resentment, engaged in hallucination, and more virtual friends but not in real
Keeping up with their long-distance
acquaintance is the primary motive of why people has been using social sites,
while other motives would be for entertainment, picture related activities,
arranging social movements, latent perceptions, making new acquaintances and
also make or break a relationship (Tharaka, 2013). Other reasons of joining
social sites are for self-articulations, media drenching and execution, taking
a break from whatever that they are doing currently, seeks information,
personal status, up keeping with their relationship and also for leisure (Dogruer
et al., 2011)
Other user can easily trace personal
information, if people share too much. According to Hospitality Technology
(2017), Social Media accounts are a build-up of personal information including
birthday events, schooling history, and family relations. What’s more, the same
personal data is commonly utilized as a security check, in a case of password
recovery process. In order to access your online financial balance or corporate
email account, an aggressor could effortlessly figure out password recovery
questions by visiting your public profile on Social Sites.
With the expanding use of person to
person communication locales, related dangers are likewise massively
increasing; with some risks are stolen identity, phishing, scams, cyber
bullying and more. These are all due to users always giving out their personal
information on social sites (Abhishek et al., 2013). Web security trends that
incorporated an expansion of focused assaults that locate the most
straightforward exposure to abuse are the trust of companions and associates
Most of the
contributing factor of why such personal information is being stolen is
associated with the changing of password. In 2011, at about 15% of the
Americans had never checked their social protection and security settings,
while in 2012, 49% of the users changed their passwords more than once, by
weekly and 42% of them had never changed their passwords (Zahra, 2016).
2.5 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Figure 2.5.1: Theoretical Framework
that influence the social media risk through information sharing
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT
The above figure shows theoretical framework of
several factors that contribute to the social media risk through sharing
information. Based on the figure, there are three independent variables and a
dependent variable. The dependent variable is the social media risks through
information sharing. The study is conducted to investigate privacy, motivation
to share and security as factors that influence the risk. The data of the
independent variables and dependent variable will be collected from the staff
at Aon Insurance Broker (M) Sdn Bhd., through questionnaire.
Table 2.5.1: Summary of LR
tend to get hacked because they trust their circle on social media.
Exposed metadata in social media is
dangerous to people who want to keep their information private.
Kambiz & John (2017)
The motives of why people share/use social
media is that they are able to stay connected, make new friends, gain knowledge,
and make relationship.
Users ignore their security settings, and
some had either changed or did not change their password.
2.6 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
2.6.1 RISK OF INFORMATION SHARING
THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA
The term information sharing has a
long history in information technology. Traditional information sharing
referred to one-to-one exchanges of data between a sender and receiver. These
information exchanges are implemented via dozens of open and proprietary
protocols message and file formats. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is a
successful implementation of commercial data exchanges that began in the late
1970s and remains in use today. According to Health and Safety Authority, in
general, risk can be defined as the probability of getting harmed or suffers
negative health effects if exposed to a hazard. It is safe to say that
the risk of information sharing through Social Media is the risk that a person
may suffer if they had shared or posted contents that could be either sensitive
or offensive to others.
A term often used to describe an
individual’s anonymity and how safe they feel in a location. Privacy refers to
information shared with visiting sites, how that information is used, who that
information is shared with, or if that information is used to track users. The
to these questions can be found (Computer Hope, 2017). The term privacy, by and
large offers significance to the capacity of a person to shield data from the
Motivation as the
word derived from the word ‘motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or drives
within the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions to
accomplish the goals.
Security can be defined as the quest for flexibility from any
dangers (Vladimir, 2010). Security is somewhat crucial for social site users to
prevent their personal data from being stolen, or even imitated.
H1: There is a
relationship between privacy and the social media risk through information
H0: There is no
relationship between privacy and the social media risk through information
H2: There is a relationship
between motivations to share and the social media risk through information
H0: There is no
relationship between motivations to share and the social media risk through
H3: There is a
relationship between security and the social media risk through information
H0: There is no relationship between security and the social media risk
through information sharing.
This chapter provides
clear thoughts on the dependent variable, social media risks through
information sharing, and the three independent variables, which is the privacy,
motivations to share and security.