2.0 INTRODUCTION A good literature review isimportant to show that researcher is knowledgeable about the problem area andhas done the preliminary homework that is necessary to conduct the research. Inthis chapter, the researcher will do some explaining regarding all thevariables which are the dependent variable and independent variables.
2.1SOCIAL MEDIA RISKS THROUGH INFORMATION SHARINGOne of the later progression inInternet’s antiquity has been web-based social sites, fundamentally, aWeb-based method of discourse that uses a wide cluster of apparatuses, sites,and different applications to empower correspondence between entity,partnerships, non-benefits, and alternative associations (Wendy, 2017). Sheadded that, Web-based social sites really envelop a wide range of advancements,yet the fundamental objectives of these channels are the same, which is tostrengthen connection. As there are a wide variety of social media formats anddelivery methods, she listed out a wide array of how users communicate; E-mail,blogging, sharing images, instant messaging and so on.Online sharing has taken over, witha wide range and sorts of records accessible at simply the snap of a catch, andmost of the files shared are not always legal. The most concern that needed tobe emphasized on is that online sharing may be through malware software, thechance of one identity to be stolen by untrusted sources, and some sourcesmight prompt to enable them to penetrate through the firewall which could leadto cyberattack such as hack (Equifax, 2016).
The persistent development of newmedia has implied that data users are currently far less obligated to what goesthrough traditional social guardians and can sidestep those guardians insideand out and shift immediately to prime data sources, a considerable lot ofwhich are data users themselves (David, Patric & Brandon, 2012). Suchsocial media guardians mentioned are journalists, advertisers and also editors. According to Joanna Belbey (2015),botches are somewhat continually to happen when occupying oneself directly withthe public. At work, employees may likewise be hacked on the grounds that theytrust kindred individuals from their own circle of online networking clientsand might be deceived by fraudsters. 2.2 PRIVACYThe human desire to stay connectedis indeed the most powerful aspect than anything else. The existence of SocialMedia sites has encouraged online behaviour where privacy is not always thefirst priority.
People share news, information, pictures and experiences, andby doing this they can build and maintain relationships as well as create newconnections that they would have otherwise never met or worked with.Nowadays, many Social Media usershave been sharing their location on the social platforms, just to let them knowtheir whereabouts. The service for sharing their location with others is calledthe Location Based Services, or known as LBS. Alongside a large number ofadvantages, locational information from LBS, similar to some other type ofspatial information, builds up potential privacy concern (Jayakrishnan & Kambiz,2017).People often put a thought in theirmind that their current location is not as sensitive information. By sharinglocations, it tells people your whereabouts, and the place you are not at (O.
Andy, 2017). The consequences for doing so could be worst. When othersknow where you are currently standing, they might use that information to goagainst you. The same goes to other aspects that may relate to sharing ofpersonal information.Other than sharing location onsocial media, it is also dangerous to post one’s pictures online. The enjoymentof sharing pictures through social sites and blogs is incontestable, and so arethe risks. Pictures that were posted are not only vulnerable to be stolen, butphotos that are taken by mobile or devices that has GPS built-in, containslabels that uncover precisely where the photographs were snapped (Kimberly,2013). Metadata is a type of information that is incorporated on all recordingsand pictures, and is used to store data about that information, such as date ofphoto taken, photographic details and coordinates.
Apparent metadata in sharedmedia is a danger to guiltless subject who might want to keep their data, suchas their residential address, preferred locations, and working place, asprivate information (Kambiz & John, 2017).Social privacy is about the controlof an individual data from being visible by the undesired entity or viewers ofthose they did not want to acknowledge their personal information. In the worldof employment, 60% of employers adopt the use of social sites to probe oncandidates and more than 25% of them expressed that their content has incited adenouncing or termination (Metin, 2017). 2.3 MOTIVATIONS TO SHAREHumans just love to share. It islike their very nature to post every single thing that happens in their life.The New York Times (2011) stated that there are 6 types of character of peoplewho share information, such as those who are: essentially roused by a want toconvey significant materials to those they care about and to tell them thatthey are considering them and that they care (altruist), like tocooperate materials and individuals in ways that are important and noteworthy (careerist),like to jump at the chance to begin a discussion, verbal confrontation orcontention, and want to develop an online character and remain associated withthe world (hipsters), inspired basically by the response they get oncemore from sharing (boomerangs), particularly appreciate sharingsubstance that is engaging (connectors), and shares data that they feelwill be significant to a specific individual, and just in the event that theyfigure the beneficiary would not have discovered it all alone (selectives).
Other than that, The Social Medias have long been used by humans to share informationthat either they know, or they received. The processof motivation consists of three stages: a felt need or drive, a stimulus inwhich needs have to be aroused and when needs are satisfied, the satisfactionor accomplishment of goals. However, when people felt too motivated, it canapparently affect their mental condition. Alice G. Walton (2017) haslisted out 6 ways that the social media can affect the mental health:obsession, decline in health, comparing with other’s lives, feelings ofresentment, engaged in hallucination, and more virtual friends but not in reallife.
Keeping up with their long-distanceacquaintance is the primary motive of why people has been using social sites,while other motives would be for entertainment, picture related activities,arranging social movements, latent perceptions, making new acquaintances andalso make or break a relationship (Tharaka, 2013). Other reasons of joiningsocial sites are for self-articulations, media drenching and execution, takinga break from whatever that they are doing currently, seeks information,personal status, up keeping with their relationship and also for leisure (Dogrueret al., 2011) 2.4 SECURITYOther user can easily trace personalinformation, if people share too much. According to Hospitality Technology(2017), Social Media accounts are a build-up of personal information includingbirthday events, schooling history, and family relations.
What’s more, the samepersonal data is commonly utilized as a security check, in a case of passwordrecovery process. In order to access your online financial balance or corporateemail account, an aggressor could effortlessly figure out password recoveryquestions by visiting your public profile on Social Sites.With the expanding use of person toperson communication locales, related dangers are likewise massivelyincreasing; with some risks are stolen identity, phishing, scams, cyberbullying and more. These are all due to users always giving out their personalinformation on social sites (Abhishek et al., 2013). Web security trends thatincorporated an expansion of focused assaults that locate the moststraightforward exposure to abuse are the trust of companions and associates(John, 2011).
Most of thecontributing factor of why such personal information is being stolen isassociated with the changing of password. In 2011, at about 15% of theAmericans had never checked their social protection and security settings,while in 2012, 49% of the users changed their passwords more than once, byweekly and 42% of them had never changed their passwords (Zahra, 2016). 2.5 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKFigure 2.5.1: Theoretical Framework Privacy Factors that influence the social media risk through information sharing Motivations to share Security INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENTVARIABLEThe above figure shows theoretical framework ofseveral factors that contribute to the social media risk through sharinginformation.
Based on the figure, there are three independent variables and adependent variable. The dependent variable is the social media risks throughinformation sharing. The study is conducted to investigate privacy, motivationto share and security as factors that influence the risk. The data of theindependent variables and dependent variable will be collected from the staffat Aon Insurance Broker (M) Sdn Bhd., through questionnaire.Table 2.
5.1: Summary of LR Variable Description Author Social Media Risk Employees tend to get hacked because they trust their circle on social media. Joanna (2015) Privacy Exposed metadata in social media is dangerous to people who want to keep their information private.
Kambiz & John (2017) Motivations The motives of why people share/use social media is that they are able to stay connected, make new friends, gain knowledge, and make relationship. Tharaka (2013) Security Users ignore their security settings, and some had either changed or did not change their password. Zahra (2016) 2.6 DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS2.
6.1 RISK OF INFORMATION SHARINGTHROUGH SOCIAL MEDIAThe term information sharing has along history in information technology. Traditional information sharingreferred to one-to-one exchanges of data between a sender and receiver. Theseinformation exchanges are implemented via dozens of open and proprietaryprotocols message and file formats. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is asuccessful implementation of commercial data exchanges that began in the late1970s and remains in use today. According to Health and Safety Authority, ingeneral, risk can be defined as the probability of getting harmed or suffersnegative health effects if exposed to a hazard. It is safe to say thatthe risk of information sharing through Social Media is the risk that a personmay suffer if they had shared or posted contents that could be either sensitiveor offensive to others.2.
6.3 MOTIVATIONMotivation as theword derived from the word ‘motive’ which means needs, desires, wants or driveswithin the individuals. It is the process of stimulating people to actions toaccomplish the goals. 2.
6.4 SECURITYSecurity can be defined as the quest for flexibility from anydangers (Vladimir, 2010). Security is somewhat crucial for social site users toprevent their personal data from being stolen, or even imitated. 2.7HYPOTHESIS H1: There is arelationship between privacy and the social media risk through informationsharing.H0: There is norelationship between privacy and the social media risk through informationsharing.
H2: There is a relationshipbetween motivations to share and the social media risk through informationsharing.H0: There is norelationship between motivations to share and the social media risk throughinformation sharing. H3: There is arelationship between security and the social media risk through informationsharing.
H0: There is no relationship between security and the social media riskthrough information sharing. 2.8 SUMMARYThis chapter providesclear thoughts on the dependent variable, social media risks throughinformation sharing, and the three independent variables, which is the privacy,motivations to share and security.