2.1 Time managementAccording to Gerald (2002), time management is to generatemore efficiency in both work and productivity by organizing, scheduling and allocatingone’s time. It is identify as set of principles, habits, techniques, andsystems to achieve and upgrade the quality of life.
(Argarwal, 2008; Kelly,2004). Adequate allotment of time on each activity helps us to deal with eacherrand successfully and be finished inside time given. Organizing the tasks tobe done associate with how an individual make the most out of the time bymanaging the necessity of the demands and the time utilization of every errandis maximized.
Apart from that, identify your goals is the beginning stage ofsuccessful time management. We ought not expect too much from time managementuntil we recognized our goals. Ofall the resources, time seems to be the most botched among the people. Theexperiences of time usually vary. Time appears to move slow when you feltexhausted, empty, or especially impatient whereas time appears to move quickwhen you are occupied by works or having a decent time. Likewise, time alsoseems to accelerate. The moment when we are still kids, we wish that time couldmove faster, however when we became adult, time seems to move quick as wefilled with packed schedule and tasks. 2.
2. Importance of TimeManagement According to Brigitte, et. al. (2005), time managementplays a much important role in increasing students’ performance andachievements. Since the passage of time cannot be restored, therefore everystudent should manage their time to attain goals in life.
Everyone possess timeequally, we could exploit time to change the impossible mission into possible. They added that, every student should possesstime management to effectively organize their activities, set their goals, andprioritize those activities that requires urgent attention and others. Whenhard work was mainly focus on the highest priorities, more workload is done inless time and workforce, hence we owned a chance to take part to wider range ofactivities. (5) Despite there is no commonly accepted way to manage time, yet itis crucial for individuals like students to value time management and exerciseit in various situation.
2.3 Time Management and Students’ Academic PerformanceProper time management positively correlates to betteracademic performance (Sevari and Kandy, 2011; Adebayo, 2015; Kearns andGardiner; 2007; Kaushar, 2013). There are several factors that can be consideredto exhibit time management. According to Laurie & Hellsten, (2002), theyrevealed that the time management behaviours consist of short-range planning,long-range planning and time attitudes. Short range planning was defined as theskills of planning and prioritizing on a daily basis such as setting target,creation work content and more.
(Yilmaz et al., 2006). On the other hand, long rangeplanning requires one’s discipline to deal with all activities such asachieving the outcomes on everyday jobs that must be executed. (Kelly, 2004)Furthermore, time attitudes examined by accentuating on the outcomes, not theamount of activities that being attended.
(Mercanlioglu, 2010) In another word,quality of time spent was being taught in time attitude, not placing theirconcentrations on the wrong side. The results presented that all the timemanagement variables were significantly corresponded to students’ academicperformance. Another study from Adebayo (2015)revealed that hypothesize the time management variables such as prioritization,procrastination, socialization as independent variables and academic results asdependent variable. According to Bandura (1977;1986), a crucial element to performwell is the motivation in classroom as kept them motivated is very essential tochildren. Besides that, students were recommended to prioritize their tasks,avoid procrastination on deadlines of assignments and examinations as well asproper amount of socialization activities. Apartfrom that, a research conducted by Indreica et al.
(2011) also investigate theimpact of effective time management to students’ Grade Point Average (GPA) as aguide to their performance. The outcomes stated that a good time management canelevate their grade point average (GPA) and indicate that successful studentswill have good time management. 2.
4 ProcrastinationProcrastination defined as the habit of deferring or puttingoff some tasks that ought to be done at this point. The outcomes from paststudies is that high priorities tasks are usually incomplete and postponed.Procrastination was established when either one of these factors happens. Firstsituation of delaying is when the tasks given is challenging or uninteresting.The solution to tackling unpleasant tasks is delegating as there are differentlevel of understandings or different capability in each of us, therefore, itwould be considered workable in other’s opinion. Fear of failure can be anotherreason for delaying. We often tend to keep ourselves away from failure thatarouse disappointment feeling within us.
The most ideal way to deal with fearis to withstand it directly. If lack of drilling or resource is your weakness,you may initiate your journey in finding the way out. Last but not least, thirdfactor of procrastination is that we have no idea where to begin. Thus, youshould jump in anywhere and you will somewhat find the effective way along thelines. Another way is to determine the sequence of errands according to itspriority and follow the sequence.