2.1 management plays a much important role in

2.1 Time management

According to Gerald (2002), time management is to generate
more efficiency in both work and productivity by organizing, scheduling and allocating
one’s time. It is identify as set of principles, habits, techniques, and
systems to achieve and upgrade the quality of life. (Argarwal, 2008; Kelly,
2004). Adequate allotment of time on each activity helps us to deal with each
errand successfully and be finished inside time given. Organizing the tasks to
be done associate with how an individual make the most out of the time by
managing the necessity of the demands and the time utilization of every errand
is maximized. Apart from that, identify your goals is the beginning stage of
successful time management. We ought not expect too much from time management
until we recognized our goals.

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            Of
all the resources, time seems to be the most botched among the people. The
experiences of time usually vary. Time appears to move slow when you felt
exhausted, empty, or especially impatient whereas time appears to move quick
when you are occupied by works or having a decent time. Likewise, time also
seems to accelerate. The moment when we are still kids, we wish that time could
move faster, however when we became adult, time seems to move quick as we
filled with packed schedule and tasks.

2.2. Importance of Time
Management

According to Brigitte, et. al. (2005), time management
plays a much important role in increasing students’ performance and
achievements. Since the passage of time cannot be restored, therefore every
student should manage their time to attain goals in life. Everyone possess time
equally, we could exploit time to change the impossible mission into possible.  They added that, every student should possess
time management to effectively organize their activities, set their goals, and
prioritize those activities that requires urgent attention and others. When
hard work was mainly focus on the highest priorities, more workload is done in
less time and workforce, hence we owned a chance to take part to wider range of
activities. (5) Despite there is no commonly accepted way to manage time, yet it
is crucial for individuals like students to value time management and exercise
it in various situation.

2.3 Time Management and Students’ Academic Performance

Proper time management positively correlates to better
academic performance (Sevari and Kandy, 2011; Adebayo, 2015; Kearns and
Gardiner; 2007; Kaushar, 2013). There are several factors that can be considered
to exhibit time management. According to Laurie & Hellsten, (2002), they
revealed that the time management behaviours consist of short-range planning,
long-range planning and time attitudes. Short range planning was defined as the
skills of planning and prioritizing on a daily basis such as setting target,
creation work content and more. (Yilmaz et al., 2006). On the other hand, long range
planning requires one’s discipline to deal with all activities such as
achieving the outcomes on everyday jobs that must be executed. (Kelly, 2004)
Furthermore, time attitudes examined by accentuating on the outcomes, not the
amount of activities that being attended. (Mercanlioglu, 2010) In another word,
quality of time spent was being taught in time attitude, not placing their
concentrations on the wrong side. The results presented that all the time
management variables were significantly corresponded to students’ academic
performance.

Another study from Adebayo (2015)
revealed that hypothesize the time management variables such as prioritization,
procrastination, socialization as independent variables and academic results as
dependent variable. According to Bandura (1977;1986), a crucial element to perform
well is the motivation in classroom as kept them motivated is very essential to
children. Besides that, students were recommended to prioritize their tasks,
avoid procrastination on deadlines of assignments and examinations as well as
proper amount of socialization activities.

            Apart
from that, a research conducted by Indreica et al. (2011) also investigate the
impact of effective time management to students’ Grade Point Average (GPA) as a
guide to their performance. The outcomes stated that a good time management can
elevate their grade point average (GPA) and indicate that successful students
will have good time management.

2.4 Procrastination

Procrastination defined as the habit of deferring or putting
off some tasks that ought to be done at this point. The outcomes from past
studies is that high priorities tasks are usually incomplete and postponed.
Procrastination was established when either one of these factors happens. First
situation of delaying is when the tasks given is challenging or uninteresting.
The solution to tackling unpleasant tasks is delegating as there are different
level of understandings or different capability in each of us, therefore, it
would be considered workable in other’s opinion. Fear of failure can be another
reason for delaying. We often tend to keep ourselves away from failure that
arouse disappointment feeling within us. The most ideal way to deal with fear
is to withstand it directly. If lack of drilling or resource is your weakness,
you may initiate your journey in finding the way out. Last but not least, third
factor of procrastination is that we have no idea where to begin. Thus, you
should jump in anywhere and you will somewhat find the effective way along the
lines. Another way is to determine the sequence of errands according to its
priority and follow the sequence.