Current treatments for Insomnia and their pros and cons     Treatment   Advantages   Disadvantages   Cognitive and behavioral treatments   a) Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I)   A talking therapy specially designed for people with insomnia       Doesn’t involve with pharmaceutical drugs so that the risk of side effects is eliminated.   Simple techniques, such as relaxation training to improve sleep     Several weeks of treatments are required   Availability is fairly limited   Recommended only for those who are having sleep issues for less than 3 weeks   Pharmaceutical Medications     b) OTC sleeping tablets   Over the counter sleeping tablets which are available at pharmacies   Available without prescription   May be useful if used very occasionally   Not recommended as a long term solution   Effectiveness is limited   Underlying cause is not tackled but only masked the problem   Side effects such as drowsiness can be occurred and continued to the following day   c) Benzodiazepines   A short-term based treatment for insomnia   Symptoms of severe or persistent of insomnia can be eased   Not recommended as a long term solution   Can become less effective overtime   Can lead to dependency   Wide range of side effects such as drowsiness, difficulty concentrating and feeling emotionally numb   d) Z- drugs   A short-term based treatment   Helpful for time-limited problems (i.e. sudden shocks or bereavement)     Clumsiness, drowsiness that continues to the following day, confusion in the night and diarrhoea can occur   Can lead to dependency and increased risk of falls in the elderly       e) Melatonin (Circadin)                     Effective for elderly people   Can be used for up to 13 weeks at a time                     Available only on prescription   Only licensed for those who are more than 55 years old   Side effects such as headaches, cold like symptoms, back and joint pain can occur