Maritime Security refersto maritime nation’s safety and security from traditional and non-traditional threatssuch as maritime terrorism, piracy, maritime inter-state dispute, humantrafficking, illegal fishing, drug or goods illicit, weapon smuggling andmaritime accidents or disasters. It became the most important thing discussedin the world especially by maritime nations. This term also linked to economic development.Historically, oceans play vital role in economics through world trading routewhich generated multi-billion industries, enormous offshore resources, coastaltourism and fisheries potential. 2. The increasing number of piracy attacksat South China Sea (SCS) and emergent politico-militarytension over territorial claims in recent years has brought maritimesecurity into global consciousness1.Both issues became the top priority in policy agenda.
It attracts globalattention to new challenges and encourages support for handling this issue. China asserted provocative claims in SCS baseon historic nine dash line drawn in early 1950’s thus brought Brunei, Philippine, Malaysia and Vietnam embroiledin territorial disputes. Subsequently China started reclaiming shoals as militaryforward operating bases2. 3. Illegal fishing also lead to theconflict within countries. Fishermen tend to enter other’s EEZ and other islanddue to depletion of fishing resources.
Although this issue not a root cause fordisputes over sovereignty, the clash over these rights occur almost dailyposing great potential to trigger crisis or armed conflict in SCS. Littoralstates have begun seizing, ramming or destroying fishing boats encroachingtheir water EEZs. 1 ICCIMB, Piracy and Armed Robbery Report From1 Jan until 30 Jun 2016, 2016.
2 IanStorey and Cheng-yi Lin, The South China Sea Dispute, 1st ed. (Singapore: ISEASPublishing, 2016).