Maritime Security refers
to maritime nation’s safety and security from traditional and non-traditional threats
such as maritime terrorism, piracy, maritime inter-state dispute, human
trafficking, illegal fishing, drug or goods illicit, weapon smuggling and
maritime accidents or disasters. It became the most important thing discussed
in the world especially by maritime nations. This term also linked to economic development.
Historically, oceans play vital role in economics through world trading route
which generated multi-billion industries, enormous offshore resources, coastal
tourism and fisheries potential.
2. The increasing number of piracy attacks
at South China Sea (SCS) and emergent politico-military
tension over territorial claims in recent years has brought maritime
security into global consciousness1.
Both issues became the top priority in policy agenda. It attracts global
attention to new challenges and encourages support for handling this issue. China asserted provocative claims in SCS base
on historic nine dash line drawn in early 1950’s thus brought Brunei, Philippine, Malaysia and Vietnam embroiled
in territorial disputes. Subsequently China started reclaiming shoals as military
forward operating bases2.
3. Illegal fishing also lead to the
conflict within countries. Fishermen tend to enter other’s EEZ and other island
due to depletion of fishing resources. Although this issue not a root cause for
disputes over sovereignty, the clash over these rights occur almost daily
posing great potential to trigger crisis or armed conflict in SCS. Littoral
states have begun seizing, ramming or destroying fishing boats encroaching
their water EEZs.
IMB, Piracy and Armed Robbery Report From
1 Jan until 30 Jun 2016, 2016.
Storey and Cheng-yi Lin, The South China Sea Dispute, 1st ed. (Singapore: ISEAS