8th grade va middle school poetry unit

Figurative Language
To use words in ways that are not meant to be taken literally.

Denotation
a word’s dictionary definition

Connotation
A feeling that a word invokes in addition to its meaning.
An example is the name Hitler being associated with negative images.

Hyperbole
Exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.
An example is saying you are so hungry you could eat a horse.

Imagery
Pictures created by the mind or from memory.
An example is a person remembering what their first pet looked like.

Metaphor
A word or phrase used to compare two unlike objects, ideas, thoughts or feelings. Does NOT use the words ‘like’ or ‘as’.
An example is calling the dependable father a rock.

Oxymoron
Combination of contradictory words.
An example is “definite maybe.”

Personification
Giving human qualities to animals, things, or ideas.
The sun is smiling.

Pun
A joke making a play on words.
An example is saying that your calendar days are numbered.

Sensory Language
Use of details from the five senses to add color or depth to writing.
The sweet vanilla flavor was still on my tongue and [Mrs. Flowers’] reading was a wonder in my ears. I had to speak.

Stanza
A formal division of lines in a poem.

Simile
A comparison between two unlike things that uses the word ‘like’ or ‘as’.
An example is “He is as hungry as a horse.”

Symbols
Use of one thing to represent something else.
An example is Christians making the cross a representation of Jesus.

Acrostic
A poem or verse in which one letter in each word is used to form another word.

Ballad
A poem or song narrating a story in short stanzas.

Blank verse
A verse without rhyme.

Cinquain
5 line stanza

Concrete
Poetry that uses some sort of visual (picture) presentation to enhance the effect of the poem.
An example is a poem about trees with the layout of the words of the poem in the shape of a tree.

Couplet
Two consecutive lines of verse with end rhymes.

Diamonte
An unrhymed seven-line poem. Shaped like a diamond.

Elegy
A solemn/sad and formal lyric poem about death.

Epic
Poem telling the tale of a fictional or historical hero.

Free verse
Poetry not written in a regular, rhythmical pattern, or meter.

Haiku
A Japanese poem of seventeen syllables, in three lines of five, seven, and five.

Limerick
Humorous, rhyming, five-line poem.
There once was a man from Nantucket / Who kept all his cash in a bucket. / But his daughter, named Nan, / Ran away with a man. / And as for the bucket, Nantucket.

Lyric
Highly musical verse that expresses the feelings of a single speaker.

Narrative
Tells a story.

Quatrain
A stanza of four lines.

Alliteration
Two or more words in a row starting with the same sounds.
An example is to write, “…winds whipping wildly.”

Assonance
Repeating a vowel sound.
An example would be the repeated use of the /oo/ sound in the sentence, “True, I do like Sue.”

Consonance
A pleasing combination of sounds or two things that are in agreement.
Example is Pitter-patter. (Using tt and er)

Meter
Rhythm of a piece of poetry, determined by the number and length of feet in a line.

Onomatopoeia
Use of words that imitate sounds.
Buzz – for a bee

Refrain
Is the part of a song or poem that is repeated.
An example is the part “The answer, my friend, is blowin’ in the wind, The answer is blowin’ in the wind.”

Repetition
A word or sentence is placed more than once within a poem.

Rhyme
When two words sound the same when spoken.
Example: Bright and night

Rhyme Scheme
Ordered pattern of rhymes at the ends of the lines of a poem.

Rhythm
Pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.