9th Grade-English-Poetry Terms

speaker
voice of poem (narrator)
identity/persona poet creates to be narrating the poem
do not assume that the speaker and poet are the same
consider age, gender, occupation, attitude, situation…. What do you know (from the poem)?

figurative language
language that is not literal to create a special effect or feeling
created through the use of figurative language

simile
comparison using “like” or “as”

metaphor
comparison of 2 unlike things without a word of comparison (“like” or “as”)
Extended Metaphor-metaphor is extended through a poem, not just a single detail
Implied Metaphor-comparison itself is not actually stated, but suggested by use of other specific details

hyperbole
extreme exaggeration or overstatement that emphasizes an idea
“I reread this page like 500 times!”

understatement
a way of emphasizing an idea by talking about in a restrained way
opposite of exaggeration or hyperbole
“climbing mt. everest is a little bit tricky?

personification
speaking or writing of an animal, object, or idea as if it were a person; ascribing human emotions to non-human things

diction
the author’s choice of words based on correctness, clarity, or effectiveness

archaic
type of diction
old fashioned, old timey

colloquialisms
type of diction
idioms or expressions usually used in informal settings and specific geographical regions

jargon
type of diction
specialized or technical language

sland
type of diction
informal language used by a particular group of people among themselves

vulgarity
type of diction
language thought to be crude, gross, or offensive

dialect
unique pronunciations of words that occur in specific geographical regions or classes
has to do with SOUNDS of words, not their meanings
usually reflected in altered or non-standard spellings of words
“nuthin” = nothing
“daaahling” = darling

denotation
a word’s literal, dictionary definition

connotation
series of implications, suggestions, and emotional associations that go with it
“passed on” “died” “kicked the bucket” “expired” denote same thing but different connotations and would be used in different situations

tone
attitude an author has toward his/her subject or audience
it can be, but doesn’t have to be the same as the speaker’s tone

mood
overall feeling evoked in the audience or reader of a poem or story
can be similar to or different from the tone the author has

narrative
poetry that tells a story

allusion
a literary reference to a familiar person, place, thing, or event
its effectiveness depends on audience’s knowledge of the reference

alliteration
repetition of initial consonent sounds in word (at beginning of word)
“Sarah Cynthia Sylivia Stout”

consonance
repetition of consonent soundsm but not limited to the beginnings of words
“gLoppy gLumps of coLd oatmeaL”

assonance
repetition of vowel sounds without repeating consonents
“cAndy the yAms And spice the hAms”

fixed form
anny form of poetry that has rules
“generic” of all types of poetry

free verse
poetry that does not have regular meter or rhyme scheme

sonnet
poem consistion of 14 lines of rhymed iambic pentameter
type of fixed-form poem, one that has a prescribed metrical arrangement, rhyme scheme, and/or number of lines

elizabethan/shakespearean sonnet
has 3 quatrains (group of 4 lines) and one rhyming couplet (2 lines) at the end
rhyme scheme “abab, cdcd, efef, gg”
usually a question or theme is set forth in the quatrains and an answer or resolution appears in the couplet

italian/petrarchan sonnet
has an octave (group of 8 lines) and a sestet (group of 6 lines)
rhyme scheme is “abbaabba, cdecde”
usually question is posed in octave and answered in sestet

rhyme
refers to the sameness of sound found between words (ie: end rhyme, internal rhyme, eye rhyme, exact rhyme, near/approximate/slant rhyme)

exact rhyme
words actually rhyme

near/approximate/slant rhyme
the rhyme is only almost a rhyme
rhyme is close to rhyming, but may have to be altered
ie: orange and door hinge

end rhyme
last words of lines (2 different lines) rhyme

internal rhyme
rhymes in middle of 1 line

rhythm
the regular or random occurrence of sound in poetry

meter
the patterned repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry

scansion
analysis of metrical patterns of verse; marking stressed and unstressed syllables

feet
smallest pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a poetic line
monometer (1)
dimeter (2)
trimeter (3)
tetrameter (4)
pentameter (5)
hexameter (6)
heptameter (7)
octometer (8)

iamb
unstressed–stressed
“ta TUM”

trochee
stressed–unstresses
“TUM ta”

spondee
2 stressed
“TUM TUM”

anapest
2 unstressed–stressed
“ta ta TUM”

dactyl
stressed–2 unstressed
“TUM ta ta”

substitution
the use of a foot other than the one regularly demanded by the meter

repetition
use of a word or phrase multiple times, usually close together
see anaphora and parallelism

refrain
word or phrase that is repeated
chorus

anaphora
kind of repetition
identical word/group of words in successive verses or clauses, usually at the beginning of lines

parallelism
kind of repetition
use of an identical structure or word order in different lines of poetry
used to create a rhythm

enjambment
the running over of a sentence or thought from 1 line to another

imagery
the use of words to create a picture in the reader’s mind using sensory details (all 5 senses)

symbol
use of a concrete object, person, place, or thing to represent something else
Universal-refers to stuff outside of what one is reading (occurs in world too)
Specific-only makes sense in the reading (certain backstory)

eye rhyme
when words are spelled similarly or appear as if they should rhyme, but don’t

iambic pentameter
meter of poem
iamb is unstressed syllable followed by stressed syllable and there are 5 per line