A mole is a unit used to measure the amount of substance that contains 6.02×1023 atoms, molecules, and ions etc. It is useful because it’s an appropriate way to indicate amounts of reactants and products of chemical reactions. By dividing the mass of the substance in grams by its relative atomic mass from the periodic table, two units that use grams in their measurement cancel each other out, leaving only the moles. As for the mass, multiply the moles by the relative atomic mass of the substance. A balanced A mole is a unit used to measure the amount of substance that contains 6.

02×1023 atoms, molecules, and ions etc. It is useful because it’s an appropriate way to indicate amounts of reactants and products of chemical reactions. By dividing the mass of the substance in grams by its relative atomic mass from the periodic table, two units that use grams in their measurement cancel each other out, leaving only the moles.

As for the mass, multiply the moles by the relative atomic mass of the substance. A balanced chemical equation can be used to predict the mass of a product because the total mass of products in a reaction must be the same as the total mass of the reactants. Aspirin is in a group of drugs called salicylates, it’s used to reduce fever and relieve mild to moderate pain from conditions such as muscle aches, toothaches, common cold, and headaches. Aspirin is made of Salicylic acid, whose name comes from Salix, the willow family of plants, was derived from willow bark extracts, and ethanoic anhydride is a colorless liquid, smelling strongly of vinegar. The balanced chemical equation of for the synthesis of aspirin is C7H6O3 + C4H6O3 = C9H8O4 + C2H4O2. Atom economy is a factor that should be considered in any process for the manufacture of a pharmaceutical because it is a way to measure the atoms wasted when making a chemical. It reduces the production of unwanted products and makes the process more sustainable. Percentage yield is important because it gives us feedback on how successful our observations were quantitative.

It forces us to consider why theoretical yield was not achieved, because of errors in calculations, in measurements, in poor lab technique etc. Sustainability is a factor that should be considered in any process for the manufacture of a pharmaceutical because it gives us an idea about the quality of the substance if it’s sustainable and less harmful to the environment.My data shows the experimental yield which is 0.54g, but we were supposed to get 2.61g because it’s our theoretical yield. Our experimental yield is lower than the theoretical yield.

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Our percentage yield is 20.6% which is very low because it should be 100%. This data is not accurate because it is lower than it should be, the experimental method was easy to follow but we have to read it carefully to understand exactly what we should do to make the experiment successful. Our atom economy is high which means that 75% of the atoms in the reactants have been converted to the desired product. Atom economy shows how unsuccessful our experiment is and percentage yield shows us how successful our experiment is. For our experiment, 75% is our atom economy which is higher than the percentage yield 20.

6%. According to these percentages, we know that our experiment wasn’t successful.The mass of the salicylic acid was supposed to be 2.00g but the particles are attached to the container and hard to take out or pour into the conical flask, which means we lost the mass of salicylic acid. This will result in a lower mass of salicylic acid which will then result in a lower mass of aspirin produced because salicylic acid should react with Ethanoic Anhydride to produce Aspirin, so if the reactant mass is low then the product mass will be low. This will result in a lower mass of aspirin produced because we were supposed to get 2.61g of aspirin but we got 0.

54g which is lower. This affected our percentage yield because it was very low, it was supposed to be 100% but we got 20.6% which shows that the mass of the salicylic acid reduced the amount of aspirin formed.

It would be better if we took the salicylic acid from the container and put it on a weighing boat then weighted it on the electronic balance to see if it’s exactly 2.00g, this will make our data more accurate and will increase the amount of aspirin produced because the salicylic acid would be not higher or lower than 2.00g.Not all aspirin was transferred to the flask because some were attached to the original flask. This will result in a lower mass of aspirin produced because we lost some while transferring it from one flask to another.

This will affect our results because the amount of aspirin produced was 0.54g which is lower than 2.61g. The loss of product resulted in less aspirin on the filter paper which made the raw data measurements inaccurate. It would be better if we used the same conical flask throughout the experiment to prevent the loss of product and to make the measurements more accurate.There were no crystals forming in the conical flask while it was inside the iced water beaker.

We changed the method because we had to wait for so long and there wasn’t enough time.We placed a stirring rod inside the flask and were stirring it trying to see if the solution will react but it didn’t it was transparent. We filtered the solution even though the crystals didn’t form. We poured water into the solution flask and nothing happened.

This resulted in our atom economy to be 75% and our percentage yield to be 20.6%. Our atom economy is high because most of the aspirin went desired, and our percentage yield is low because most of it didn’t react together. This will enable us to achieve our theoretical yield because the percentage yield is not 100%. It would be better if we recrystallize aspirin using hot water because in my research aspirin is insoluble in cold water in the process of recrystallization first dissolve aspirin crystals into hot water and then let it cool down so that it would crystallize out. This would make our calculated yield higher because aspirin is more soluble in hot water.The filter paper made a hole due to the weight of ice water poured in the solution.

We were trying to get all the water into the flask but accidently a piece of ice fell inside the filter paper and made a hole. This will prevent us from measuring the mass of the filter paper after we pour the solution because it got ripped. This resulted in less aspirin produced because we lost a lot of aspirin that was on the ripped piece. The filter paper before is 1.

35g and after is 1.89g which means that only 0.54g of aspirin was produced, it is lower than the theoretical yield which means that our data is not accurate. It would be better if we only poured the water from the beaker half way through to prevent the ice from falling, or if we took out the ice from the beaker first then poured all the water without worrying about the filter paper.