A Fire Fighting Robot: A reviewChetan Kadam, Ashish Ubale, Akshay GoleStudents: Department of Electronics & TelecommunicationA. P.
Shah Institute of Technology, ThaneAbstract—Firefighting is an important but dangerousoccupation. A firefighter must be able to get to a firequickly and safely extinguish the fire, preventing furtherdamage and reduce fatalities. Recently, it has sometimesbeen impossible for fire-fighting personnel to access thesite of a fire, even as the fire causes tremendous propertydamage and loss of human life, due to high temperaturesor the presence of explosive materials or the fire smokehazard in tunnel fires. Thus, technology has finallybridged the gap between firefighting and machinesallowing for a more efficient and effective method offirefighting. In practice a robot is usually anelectromechanical machine that is guided by computer andelectronic programming. Robots can be autonomous,semiautonomous or remotely controlled .Keywords—Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), PIC16F887,HT12E, PIC16F628I. INTRODUCTIONIn fire hazardous environments, fire-fighting robots can beuseful for extinguishing a fire.
Firefighting robots are specialrobots, which as special fire-fighting equipment can replacefirefighters near the scene to fight fire and rescue effectivelyand carry out reconnaissance missions of the fire. This paperstudies and implements the method to build a mobile robotwith human remote control system in order to help a remoteoperator who is located far away from the firefighting robot.The Robot has a camera mounted on it whose direction canalso be controlled using wireless remote its nothing but the rfmodule transmitter.The controlling devices of the whole system areMicrocontrollers, wireless transceiver modules, water jet spray,DC motors and buzzer are interfaced to Microcontroller. Whenuser fed the command the microcontroller interfaced to it readsthe command and sends relevant data of that commandwirelessly using transceiver module. This data is received bythe transceiver module on the robotic vehicle and feds it tomicrocontroller which acts accordingly on motors, pump .Therobot is even made to climb stairs and travel through fairlylarge amounts of rubbles. On the robot there will be a camerawhich is used to take video.
The robot is built to discover areaswhich people cannot reach. This robot is able to cope withstairs, very rough terrain, and is able to move fast on flatground.II. BLOCK DIAGRAMThe main building blocks of the project are1. Regulated Power Supply2. Microcontrollers.3.
RF transmitter and receiver module.4. Wireless Transceiver modules.5. DC motors with driver.
6. LED indicators.Above figure shows the building blocks of the proposed work”Fire Fighting Robot” which consists of a regulated powersupply unit, microcontroller, DC motors, water pumps etc.The power supply unit provides regulated supply of 5v and12v DC. Power supply design consists of various steps likestep down transformer, rectification, filtering and regulator.This power supply provides supply to all the components inthe circuit as per the requirement. The microcontroller is thebrain of the complete circuit.
The microcontroller used in this application is a PICmicrocontroller which operates on 5v DC supply. Thiscontroller is programmed to perform the desire operation ofthe prototype module. This microcontroller commands theIdentify applicable sponsor/s here. If no sponsors, delete this text box (sponsors).robot according to the remote control programming. In theremote control circuit, PIC16F887 is the main controllerinterfacing with RF module and push buttons. The RF moduletransmits serial data with the baud rate 300bps.
There areseven push buttons in the circuit assigned as from Sw1 toSw7. Sw1 is used for ‘Forward’ command, Sw2 for ‘Reverse’,Sw3 for ‘Right’, Sw4 for ‘Left’, Sw5 for ‘Step+’, Sw6 for’Step-‘ and the last push button Sw7 is used for ‘Pump’.In the receiving circuit, PIC16F887 is also selected as themain controller to interface with other devices. There are fourmotors; right DC motors (M1), left DC motor (M2), onestepper motor and pump motor.III. TRANSMITTER SECTIONThe circuit is supported with 5V and 12V DC supply.
Thetransmitter section consists of a keypad for controlling therobot, a microcontroller, and a RF transmitter. Themicrocontroller used here is a PIC microcontroller. In thissystem a keypad containing various switches for thecontrolling of the robot is interfaced with the microcontroller.In this system four switches are connected, are used to movethe robot in 4 directions .When the user presses a switch, robotwill move in particular direction as per the stored program inthe controller IC.
The microcontroller interfaced to it reads thecommand and sends relevant data of that command wirelesslyusing RF transmitter. A HT-12E encoder circuit is used toencode the data to be transmitted by the RF transmitter. IV.
RECEIVER SECTIONThe receiver section consists of a RF receiver along with adecoder, microcontroller, DC motors interfaced withmicrocontroller through relays, a water pump etc. The datafrom the transmitter is received by the RF receiver on therobot. This received data is then decoded and feds it tomicrocontroller which acts accordingly move direction andpump. In this application the DC motors are interfaced with themicrocontroller through the relay driver IC ULN2803A.
Theprototype consists of 4 motors for the movement of the robotA wireless camera is connected to the arm of the robot.This camera is used for viewing the live images on PC. V. WORKING To drive every one of the segments in the transmittersegment 5V dc and 12V dc are required.
The mains give the230V air conditioning. The 230V air conditioning is ventureddown to 12V air conditioning by utilizing venture downtransformer. In any case, the Micro Controller takes a shot at5V dc .To change over the 12V dc into 5V dc a controller isutilized. The microcontroller is customized to recognize thisinformation i.
e. to which paired code. The RF transmitter isinterfaced with the microcontroller through this HT12Eencoder.
Every location/information is remotely trinaryprogrammable if fortified out. All address pins of HT12E isgrounded. In this way the information encoded by HT12E willbe 0111. This encoded information is accessible at pin 17 ofHT12E. r.
This transmitter sends the information in binaryform to the receiver.VI. WIRELESS CONTROL WITH RF MODULE This radio frequency (FR) transmission system employsAmplitude Shift Keying (ASK) with transmitter/receiver(Tx/Rx) pair operating at 434 MHz.
The transmitter moduletakes serial input and transmits these signals through RF. Thetransmitted data is received by an RF receiver operating at thesame frequency as that of the transmitter . The maximum baudrate is 9600 bps. But, to get less error, 300 bps is used. Thereare two parts; transmitting and receiving. For motor control, intransmitting part, seven push buttons are used to input the datawith defined password for the RF transmitter. In receivingpart, RF module receives data only when the configuredpassword for this module is read and sent signal to thecontroller to drive the motors.
Then, the receiver accepts thedata and sends these data to the microcontroller. Three microcontrollers are chosen for this paper. Two ofthese are PIC16F887s and another one is PIC16F628. OnePIC16F887 is used for wireless remote control and anotherone is used as main controllers to control the drivers.
The lastone PIC16F628 is applied only for transmitting data andreceiving data. VII. STEP CLIMBING OPERATIONStair climbing has been carried out with robots usingdifferent types of mechanisms. One can roughly distinguishwheeled, legged, and tracked robots. Lifting the front part Byswitching on, the motor starts rotating the upper wheel whichlifts the front part of the robot to a certain height.
The frontwheels will move forward through the step and also helps therobot to climb the stair.Working of the robot takes place stepwise. The robot comes torest momentarily after each step.The four steps for climbing the stairs are:-1. Robot wheel touches the step2. Lifting the front part.3.
Lifting the back part of the robot.4. Following the above steps the robot proceeds.5. It can also be used for descending of steps.
VIII. APPLICATIONS1. It guides the blind persons to reach a particular destinationby buzzer indication. 2. It is used in hazardous places.3. It warns the person against the intruders.4.
Useful in controlling fire at extreme places where humanbeing cannot reach.CONCLUSIONA technology to bridge the gap between firefighting andmachines thus allowing for a more efficient and effectivemethod of firefighting will be developed. The developed robotcan got to places of fire outbreak where human accessibility isdifficult and use its stored water to extinguish the fire.REFERENCES1 . Phyo Wai Aung,Wut Yi Win, , “Remote Controlled Firefighting Robot,” Iternational Journal of ScientificEngineering and Technology Research, ISSN 2319- 8885vol. 3 Issue 24, pp.
4830-4835, September 2014.2 Sahil Shah, Vaibahv Shah, Pritvish Mamtora, MohitHapani, ” Fire Fighting Robot”,Iternational Journal ofEmerging trends & Technology in Computer , ISSN2278- 6856 vol. 2 Issue 4, pp. 232-234, July-August 2013.3 Tushar Satbai, Rahul Karande, Anant Patil, Prof. ManishPatil, ” Fire Fighting Robot”,Iternational Journal onRecent and Innovation Trends in Computing andCommunication , ISSN 2321- 8169 vol.
4 Issue 4, pp.799-803, April 2016