A richness of the forests can give a

 A number of authors have stated that among
forest ecosystems of the world, forest in the tropics is characterized with
highest species diversity (Gentry, 1992) and nearly
40 percent of the Eastern Afromontane
Biodiversity hotspot occurs in Ethiopia (Birdlife international, 2012). Consequently East African Mountains in the Eastern Afromontane Biodiversity hotspot is one of
the species richest and most diversified (Tamrat Bekele, 1994). Thus the
vegetation of the forest is in covenant with the
general pattern of high species diversity in the tropical montane forests.


The results of this
study display that Goro-Bele forest is among diverse forests in Ethiopia with
regard to flora species diversity. Though direct contrast of the species
diversity with other forest is not practical due to variation in size of the
forests, ecological access to survey the forest and objectives to be achieved,
the overall species richness of the forests can give a general impression of
the forests diversity. Thus the plant species
richness is greater than some of the fragmented dry Afromontane forests of the
country. In line with this, with about 182 plant species in Goro-Bele
forest is higher than the dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia, for example, Denkoro forest (174 species, Abate Ayalew et al., 2006);
Jibat forest (54 species, Tamrat Bekele, 1994);
Menagesha Forest (91 species, Abiyou Tilahun et al., 2011); Tara Gedam
Forest (111 species, Haileab Zegeye et al., 2013). The exceeding species
richness in the Goro-Bele forest from these Dray Afromontane forests could be
due to the higher herb species favored by anthropogenic disturbance and
attributed to the size of the present study area with an altitudinal variation
from 2063 to 2461 m above sea level. Currently, a substantial part of
the land surface is being influenced by human activities, causing ecosystem
fragmentation and imperiling biodiversity through natural surroundings
reduction, expanded seclusion, and modifications in biotic and abiotic factors
in the rest of the fragments (Otálora et al., 2011).  Thus the herbaceous
species richness in the study forest have been increased due to high human
disturbance in the forest. The assessment of the study resulted 75(over 40%)
herbaceous plant species from the forest which could be an indicative evidence
for such disturbances. It is also noted that the high number of herbaceous
species richness may be attributed to the open canopy cover of the forest in
the study area (Friis 1986). Moreover the presence of more dominant indicator
species such as Bersama abyssinica and Croton macrostachyus, and few scattered Phytolacca
dodecandra, Kalanchoe petitiana, in the forest evidenced from the
indicator species of forest disturbance as stated in Abate Ayalew et al.,