Abstract— Now a day’s healthcare is a huge factor for systems which are struggling with aging population, prevalence of chronic diseases, and the accompanying rising costs.
In response to these challenges, researchers have been actively seeking for innovative solutions and new technologies that could improve the quality of patient care meanwhile reduce the cost of care through early detection/intervention and more effective disease/patient management. It is envisaged that the future healthcare system should be preventive, predictive, personalized, pervasive, participatory, patient-centered, and precise, i.e., p-health system. Health informatics, which is an emerging interdisciplinary area to advance p-health, mainly deals with the acquisition, transmission, processing, storage, retrieval, and use of different types of health and biomedical information. The two main acquisition technologies of health information are sensing and imaging. This paper focuses only on sensing technologies and reviews the latest developments in sensing and wearable devices for continuous health monitoring and accessing the information.
Keywords— IOT, Intelligent System, Healthcare Management system, Wearable medical sensors, Remote Patient Monitoring.With the development of world, Health monitoring system is used in every field such as hospital, home care unit, sports. A promising trend in healthcare is to move routine medical checks and other healthcare services from hospital (Hospital-Centric) to the home environment (Home-Centric).By doing so, the patients can get seamless healthcare at any time in a comfortable home environment, society’s financial burden could be greatly reduced by remote treatment by providing medicines using medical box, limited hospital resources can be released for people in need of emergency care.
In this paper, using IoT devices is proposed to collect the required parameters and evaluate the data obtained from the IoT devices. It also notifies the patient with possible precautionary measures to be practiced by them. This system suggests the patient with medical care and next step to be followed in case of critical situation. The existing system are lacking some important features such as portability, efficiency, cost efficiency, reliability, overhead and complicated user interface which can be overcome in our system. The current system is available in only single user environment which can be extended to multiuser environment in the future. This system is evaluated for certain parameters and the decisions made on the data obtained from the source are assumed to evaluate the system 12. Monitoring health with respect to monitor the values of heart beat, body temperature and blood pressure. Hence all these data will be monitored by the doctor and the prescriptions will be provided on time.
Sometime it is observed that patients get annoyed going to hospital regularly for checkups. Above described problem can easily get solved, if we make a home medical checkup for heartbeat, body temperature and blood pressure monitoring system. So we are proposing to make a Healthcare Management System in which our idea is to create a portable device that can measure the patient’s heartbeat, body temperature, blood pressure and store and analyze this data and in case of any abnormality in the patient’s heartbeat, body temperature or blood pressure, send a notification to the family doctor, upon which doctor can prescribe a medicine or notify an ambulance which will benefit the patient. This will assure everyone a decent healthcare 3.In India many patients are dying because of ill health and reason behind this factor is that they are not getting proper help during critical period. To give them timely and proper help first we want continuous monitoring of patient health. Our system is developed for home use by patients that are not in a critical condition but need to be timely monitored by doctor or family.
In any critical condition the Notification is send to the doctor or any family member. So that we can easily save many lives by providing them quick service 34. To Provide Regular Notifications to the doctor. It will be also helpful for people who are living alone in their house and don’t have anyone to help (could be elder person).System will inform doctor if there is any emergency or critical value in heartbeat, body temperature or in blood pressures value. This System will take day to day update of patient’s heartbeat, body temperature and blood pressure 1.
The system collects information like temperature, pulse rate, cough and cold of the patient and updates the same to the doctor. The doctor can monitor the progress of patients’ health now and then to advise them about their health. This paper focuses on single user environment which can be extended to multiuser environment. The system can be extended by adding more features like leading doctor’s list and their specialties, hospitals and their special facilities etc., Doctors can create awareness about diseases and their symptoms through the mobile application.
From the evaluation and the result obtained from analysis the system is better for patients and the doctor to improve their patients’ medical evaluation 123.The paper has a variety of application such as Remote Patient monitoring-which can be used for remotely monitoring of patient, Body temperature status-for the continuous monitoring, heartbeat monitoring-for monitoring patient’s heart rate, Hospitals, Old age homes, Senior Citizens, Mentally challenged person, Intensive Care Unit, Connected to Ambulance Network 4.The System has various impact such as hospital stays are minimized due to Remote Patient Monitoring, Patient health parameter data is stored in data log. So it is more beneficial than maintaining the records on printed papers kept in the files, In critical condition an emergency call is given to ICU and ambulance, Doctors can give prescription without visiting to patient, Disable patients can use this project, Highly sensitive, Complete elimination of manpower, Easy to install and use124.We have conducted a literature survey based upon which we have concluded the differences in the existing system and proposed system which can be seen in the below figure, fig-1 Existing vs Proposed System 12345678.ParameterExisting SystemProposed SystemNo. of Components usedMany(large components)Medium(As compared to others)CostHighMediumPortable and compactPortable and compact(due to wearable tags)Portable and compact (due to size)Type of Kit(Arduino Uno/Raspberry pi)Raspberry Pi1.
Arduino UNOOverhead and Speed/TimeYes overheadNo Overhead.User InterfaceComplicatedUser FriendlyAnd InteractiveThe Existing System uses Raspberry pi kit which increases the cost of the entire system and overhead as the existing system build a network among all entities (doctors, patients, Labs, Pharmacists, Nurses), speed of execution is also slow and time taken is more, in our system we have proposed to use a Arduino uno kit which reduces cost as well complexity and No Overhead as no need of carrying and caring of intelligent jackets, Our System contains One small sized tool box in which all components will be fixed and one more advantage is after prescription of doctor prescribed medicine will be given to patient through the Medical Box automatically along with the following components such as Bluetooth, WiFi Module, RFID, Switch, Heartbeat, BP and Temperature Sensors, Motor Drive and DC Motor, Power Supply Modules and Software like Android App(GSM+GPS) 124.Our Proposed system has compact box that will collect the information related to blood pressure, heart beat and body temperature. These data will be send by using IOT to the doctor as shown in fig-2.1 Block diagram (patient side).Doctor will monitor the data and if there is critical values in the data then doctor will prescribe some medicine to the patients by his android mobile as shown in fig 2.2 Block Diagram(Data side) and fig 2.
3 Block Diagram(Patient side) 12.According to the prescription of doctor the I-MED box will get notified and some medicine will come out from the I-MED box.The respected patient will take the medicine. To check whether the specific patients has taken medicine the RFID is used at the patient and the I-MED box side. After taking the medicine the doctor will be acknowledged. While travelling if patient faces accident or any critical problem during anytime then in this case patient can press the switch which would be there in compact box.
After pressing the switch the specific ambulance will get notified by the Current location of the patients as shown in fig-2.1 Block diagram(patient side),fig 2.2 Block Diagram(Data side) and fig 2.3 Block Diagram(Patient side) 124.Fig 2.1: Block Diagram (Patient Side) Fig 2.
2: Block Diagram (Data Side)Fig 2.3 :Block Diagram (Doctor Side)This system would be more reliable as compare to existing systems. Reduction in Efforts of going to hospital regularly for checkups. Greatly help to local community, elderly people and patients. It will make a convenient and effortless monitoring system. It will help to keep the people aware of their health 134.In our proposed system we are going to use spiral model.
Because in this model we can go back to previous stages. But in waterfall model we cannot jump back to previous stages of SDLC .If in future or while implementing our system we need any modification, we can do that in spiral model.
In this model, we work simultaneously on some stages. Like requirement gathering and designing etc. This model gives us the freedom to add the functionalities or requested enhancements by the stakeholders while the major requirements are gathered beforehand in the requirement gathering process itself before the implementation phase.
The parallel development can be planned as shown in fig 3- Spiral Model 14.Fig 3-Spiral ModelFig 4: Software Architecture.Patient side (Arduino module):Temperature sensor will sense the temperature, heartbeat sensor will give the pulse count and blood pressure will give information of blood pressure of patient continuously through arduino uno using wifi module and will be updated in data log. One panic/emergency switch is provided to inform Critical conditions directly. Monitoring will be continuous. This kit and medical box will be near to patient and both will be connect through RFID Module.
(Patient side Tx and box side Rx). Bluetooth module will be present to patient side kit to connect module with patient side android app, if person is going out from the home then to send his/ her location in critical condition (through app patient can call to the doctor or concern person and can get his/ her status) as shown in fig-2.1 Block diagram (patient side) and fig-4 Software Architecture 13.Server (PC):Server will collect the data from patient side kit and will update it in data log.
It will check if the condition is normal or critical, according to that action will be taken. If the condition is not normal the doctor will get notification in his/her android app. The message will be in text as well as in speech form.
After that according to patient condition doctor will take an action. If the condition is critical, it will inform to doctor about this and doctor will send sms to an ambulance as well as an ICU from doctor side app. If doctor gives any prescription to patient, it will a send signal to medical box kit to open the mentioned tablet box. And after getting a reply from medical box that patient has taken the medicine it will send indication to doctor about same via single switch (which is mounted at medicine box side) as shown in fig-2.2 Block Diagram (Data side), fig 2.3 Block Diagram (Patient side) and fig-4 Software Architecture 12.
Doctor side (android app):After getting a notification in text as well as speech format, doctor will take an action according to patient condition. If any prescriptions has to be given to a patient, it will send that in server through android app. Doctor will get notification through server when patient will take his medicines as shown in fig 2.2 Block Diagram(Data side), fig 2.3 Block Diagram(Patient side) and fig-4 Software Architecture 14.. Medical Box (Arduino Module): The medical box will be kept near to patient and connect through RFID Rx.
When doctor gives any prescription, server notifies to medical box kit about it. And according to respective tablet will come out and buzzer will buzz as indication to patient, that he/she has to take a tablet. After taking a medicine, patient will press the switch as an indication that he/she has taken the medicine. If any unauthorized person is taking the tablet that is RFID Receivers receiving frequency is not matching with frequency transmitting from RFID Transmitter and acknowledging it through switch, then box kit will not send any signal to server. Only an authorized person can send the signal after taking the tablet.
All the modules will be connected through wifi (Intranet connection same router for all wifi modules) and numbers we can mentioned in Android app which at doctor side as shown in fig-2.1 Block diagram(patient side),fig 2.2 Block Diagram(Data side), fig 2.3 Block Diagram(Patient side) and fig-4 Software Architecture 1345.An efficient system is developed to monitor the up to date status of the patient irrespective of the presence of the doctor.
The system collects information like temperature, pulse rate, cough and cold of the patient and updates the same to the doctor. The doctor can monitor the progress of patients’ health now and then to advise them about their health. The system can be extended by adding more features like leading doctor’s list and their specialties, hospitals and their special facilities etc., Doctors can create awareness about diseases and their symptoms through the mobile application. From the evaluation and the result obtained from analysis the system is better for patients and the doctor to improve their patients’ medical evaluation.1 Durga Amarnath M.
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