crime, or computer oriented crime, is crime that involves a computer and a
network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it
may be the target.
crimes can be defined as: “Offences that are committed against individuals
or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the
reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm, or loss, to the
victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as
Internet (networks including but not limited to Chat rooms, emails, notice
boards and groups) and mobile phones (Bluetooth/SMS/MMS)”.
may threaten a person or a nation’s security and financial health. Issues
surrounding these types of crimes have become high-profile, particularly those
surrounding hacking, copyright infringement, unwarranted mass-surveillance,
sextortion, child pornography, and child grooming.
are also problems of privacy when confidential information is intercepted or
disclosed, lawfully or otherwise. Debarati Halder and K. Jaishankar further
define cybercrime from the perspective of gender and defined ‘cybercrime
against women’ as “Crimes targeted against women with a motive to
intentionally harm the victim psychologically and physically, using modern
telecommunication networks such as internet and mobile phones”.
both governmental and non-state actors engage in cybercrimes, including
espionage, financial theft, and other cross-border crimes. Activity crossing
international borders and involving the interests of at least one nation state
is sometimes referred to as cyber warfare.
rapid development of computer connectivity and the role of the Internet in the emergence
of new e-commerce have compelled national governments and international
agencies to address the need for regulation and safety on the ‘information
astonishing tools have eroded the traditional barriers to communication,
compressed our concepts of time and place, and changed the way a large part of
the world does business. The convergence of computing and communications and
the exponential growth of digital technology have brought enormous benefits but
with these new benefits come greater risks both domestically and across
borders. The new opportunities created in ‘cyberspace’ have enhanced the capacity
of individual offenders and criminal networks that have emerged to exploit vulnerabilities
in the ‘new’ economy.
role of digital and information technologies in the generation of national
wealth now means that the new risks associated with these changes require
continued attention on all fronts: national, regional and international. While
the process of ‘globalization’ continues to accelerate, a fully global response
to the problems of security in the digital age has yet to emerge and efforts to
secure cyberspace has been reactive rather than proactive.
in the trans-national policing of ‘cyberspace’ so essential in addressing
cyber-crime are the focus of this paper and it outlines what the international
community has achieved so far. Controlling crime involving digital technology and
computer networks will also require a variety of new networks: networks between
police and other agencies within government, networks between police and
private institutions, and networks of police across national borders. Over the
past decade, considerable progress has been made within and between nations to
develop the capacity of police to respond to cybercrime and there is now
growing awareness amongst computer users of the need for basic security
Careful regarding the following contents:
terrorism: Cyber terrorism in general can be defined as an act of terrorism
committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources (Parker 1983). As
such, a simple propaganda piece in the Internet that there will be bomb attacks
during the holidays can be considered cyber terrorism. There are also hacking
activities directed towards individuals, families, organized by groups within
networks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collecting
information relevant for ruining peoples’ lives, robberies, blackmailing etc.
extortion: Cyber-extortion occurs when a website, e-mail server, or computer
system is subjected to or threatened with repeated denial of service or other
attacks by malicious hackers.
warfare: Cyber warfare involves the battle space use and targeting of computers
and networks in warfare. It involves both offensive and defensive operations
pertaining to the threat of cyber attacks, espionage and sabotage. There has
been controversy over whether such operations can duly be called
“war”. Nevertheless, nations have been developing their capabilities
and engaged in cyber warfare either as an aggressor, defendant, or both.
kinds of criminality encompass the following (by no means exhaustive) list:
Interference with lawful use of a computer: cyber-vandalism and terrorism; denial
of service; insertion of viruses, worms and other malicious code.
Dissemination of offensive materials: pornography/child pornography; on-line gaming/betting;
racist content; treasonous or sacrilegious content.
Threatening Communications: extortion; cyber-stalking.
Forgery/counterfeiting: ID theft; IP offences; software, CD, DVD piracy; copyright
Fraud: payment card fraud and e-funds transfer fraud; theft of Internet and telephone
services; auction house and catalogue fraud; consumer fraud and direct sales
(e.g. virtual ‘snake oils’); on-line securities fraud; and
Other: Illegal interception of communications; commercial/corporate espionage; communications
in furtherance of criminal conspiracies; electronic money laundering.
and Regional Cooperation:
creates an unprecedented need for concerted action from government and
industry, but also unprecedented challenges to effective international cooperation.
As noted it is not always clear where computer-related offences take place for
the purpose of determining criminal jurisdiction. An offence may produce victims
in many countries, as in cases involving virus attacks, copyright violations, and
other 17 offences carried out globally through the Internet. This in turn may result
in cross border conflicts regarding which jurisdiction(s) should prosecute the
offender and how such prosecutions can be carried out to avoid inconvenience to
witnesses, duplication of effort, and unnecessary competition among law enforcement
cooperation in combating cyber-crime that include the following:
improve security awareness by providing adequate resources to secure transactions
and equip system operators and administrators;
improve coordination and collaboration by enabling systematic exchanges between
the private sector and law enforcement including joint operations;
take steps to ensure that technology does not outpace the ability of law enforcement
to investigate and enact substantive and procedural laws adequate to cope with
current and anticipated manifestations of cyber-crime;
Broadly criminalize the conduct (including juvenile offenders) and focus on all
violators big and small;
international initiatives by updating existing treaties and agreements to
recognize the existence, threats and transnational nature of high tech
computer-related crimes and strive for legal harmonization; and
development of forensic computing skills by law enforcement and investigative
personnel and mechanisms for operational cooperation between law enforcement agencies
from different countries, i.e. 24/7 points of contact for investigators.
Crime which is occurring at all times in our daily life and around our life
circumstances and even we are everyday being deceived by cyber crime. Though
not all people are victims to cyber crimes, they are still at risk. Crimes by
computer vary, and they don’t always occur behind the computer, but they
executed by computer. The hacker’s identity is ranged between 12 years young to
67years old. The hacker could live three continents away from its victim, and
they wouldn’t even know they were being hacked. Crimes done behind the computer
are the 21st century’s problem. With the technology increasing, criminals don’t
have to rob banks, nor do they have to be outside in order to commit any crime.
They have everything they need on their lap. Their weapons aren’t guns anymore;
they attack with mouse cursors and passwords.