Abstract Educationis the basic element of building any nation’s way towards the success andprosperity. Pakistan is facing huge educational crisis since day ofindependence.
The purpose of this research is to identify the problems andissues in educational system of Pakistan. In this paper we have listed all theissues which are becoming the hurdle in providing the good education or atleast the basic education to everyone in Pakistan, highlighting the factors ofand giving the solution to that issues. Educational system: TheEducational system consists of all the private and government centers that aredelivering the formal education. This also includes the physicalinfrastructure, students, resources and a set of rules which are being followedby everyone in educational system. Thesecenters can be government, private, semi-private or semi-govt. As we aretalking about the system so it also includes the ministry of education which ismanaging all these educational operations and educational boards which areconducting the examination system region wise.
The most important part of educationalsystem is all the rules and regulation which every private and governmentinstitution has to accept and follow to remain in the system. Educational system in Pakistan: Pakistan is emerging as one of the overpopulated country, so the educational system of Pakistan is made up of 260903 educationalcenters which are serving 41018384 students with 1535465 teachers on the whole.These are the huge figures. The number of private centers is less than thenumber of government centers 80067 and 180845 respectively.
Educational systemof Pakistan is consists of 5 major phases which are given below.Primary education:primary education starts from initial step which is grade 1 till grade 5. Thatis the basic step to enter in the educational system and then pursue theeducational career but hardly 60% children completes the primary education andgoes to next level. Middle education:Middle education is from grade 6 till grade 8 but the subjects choosing optionsis not much appreciated in rural areas due to lack of facilities of newtechnology. The rural areas still prefers the single sex educational system. Secondary Education: Secondary school is further classified into twocategories secondary school and higher secondary school.
Secondary schoolcovers the grade 9 and 10, so to clear secondary school you have to sit in aregional board exam and then you can proceed to higher secondary school whichcovers the grade 11 and 12. This grade builds the base for your professionalcareer as you have to specifically choose a field from engineering, medical,social sciences and commerce group. University education: After completing the higher secondary levelsuccessfully students are allowed to get admissions in their relateddisciplines like engineering, medical sciences. That is the gateway to furtherhigher education. Use of Native language vs. international language: Let’sstart from the measured facts that above 50 million children are not enrolledin school or dropped out of the school in the early stages.
The children whose nativelanguage is not the language of instruction are more likely to drop out or failI early grades. Actually the case issue is when a child starts going to the schoolin initial stages he/she was communication with family in native language andthen suddenly he’s onto the mission of learn Modern languages. At the verystart of educational phase children needs to be taught in native languageinstead of pushing them towards modern language, centers should pay more attentionto involve children in education rather than making it tough for them to evenunderstand a bit of their lesson.
The system should be more focused on makingthe enjoyable start of children’s educational career, so he/she can put his/herinterest in education. The system should be more concerned about the gain ofknowledge rather than gain the command on international languages. According toa survey conducted in secondary level schools 40% of students drop out ofschool just because they are not good at English or they are unable to passEnglish exam. Same is the case with higher secondary school where wholesyllabus is in English and the students coming from rural areas don’t feelcomfortable with this and some of them drop out of colleges and some of themjust start memorizing the sentences without even knowing the meanings orconcepts of lessons. International language should be optional not compulsory. One system for all: The educational system of every country issame throughout the government and private sectors. In constitution of Pakistanit is been stated clearly that government should provide the free educationtill secondary school to every child, but the reality is totally opposite tothis.
The government has completely failed to provide the basic qualityeducation and basic facilities of education in schools so that’s the mainreason of rapid growth of private institutions. According to a recent researchon primary and middle level education sector in Pakistan have drawn attentionto the fact that percentage of children going to private schools has increaseddrastically. These private schools are growing their institutions successfullyjust because government is failing to complete its duty. These private schoolsare not that much expensive so they are targeting not only the rich but thepoor or middle class people as well. They fact is that even the poor peopledon’t want to send their kids to government schools just because the lack offacilities and improper infrastructure. The private schools are providingbetter quality of education as compared to public schools that is anotherreason of diverting the parent’s attention towards private schools.
There isno issue if someone want to study in private centers but that is for sure ifquality of education is improved in public sector then no one wants to missthat opportunity and in other words we can say our constitutional right. Thegovernment should deploy a monitoring system at least to ensure the same courseoutline for private and public institutions. There should be a same syllabusfor everyone from grade one till secondary standard. The government should forma department province vise to make policy like Ø Setthe curriculumØ Setthe syllabus Ø Checkthe standards of education till secondary levelØ Ensurethe Islamic education compulsoryØ Ensurethe basic advance technology facilities Quality and Quantity of Education: Asthe quality is always preferred above quantity in every field of life same isthe case should be with the educational system of Pakistan. To improve theliving standards of people in Pakistan more focus should be on quality ofeducation rather than quantity and this goal could be accomplish be arrangingthe innovation trainings for teachers. The basic purpose of these trainingsshould be to give awareness to teachers about how to involve children ineducational process and how to make them innovative and creative as we arefocusing on secondary school level right now.The quality of education has a huge role of teachers to put their bestin the students to get the most out of this educational system and students.
The teachers are the central characters of this quality learning of thestudents, as teachers are intensely involved in this process to transfer thebest of their knowledge to their students. The Teaching is a respectableprofession and they are esteemed professionals but they do need to keeplearning about the advanced ways if interactive learning. The government shouldarrange seminars, trainings and workshops for teachers to enhance their skills.
Gender biases in Educationalsystem: Thegender discrimination can be seen everywhere in Pakistan in almost every sector,but this gender difference in educational system is more highlighted andthoughtful. The gender discrimination is actually not an issue which is not atthe government end but that’s actually the mentality of our society which iscausing this discrimination. In urban areas this discrimination is gettingreduced and females are getting involved in almost every field of life andgoing for higher studies and making their way to the professional life. Inrural areas the situation is quiet worst, the people have a perception thatwomen are only for household work and they don’t need to study. They just needto learn the household work and that’s all they need from a woman’s life.
Thisperception has to be changed if we want to be successful as a nation. Educationand economy are directly linked to each other, so if any nation wants to becomeeconomically strong they need to invest big on education and more importantlyon equal educational opportunities for males and females. Only those nationswill survive in upcoming years who will give prime importance to education. Pakistan has failed to reduce thepoverty rate from the society just because of low literacy rate.
As only 57% isliteracy rate of Pakistan according to a survey which was conducted in 2012,and the 57% literacy rate means that we have this ratio for those people whoare able to read and write it’s not about the higher education. Pakistan is oneof those nations which are investing arguably low on education and there arenot equal opportunities for female as 52% of our population consists of female. OtherFactors: Lackof Proper Planning: The educational system of Pakistan is facingsome serious lack of planning issues. As in the constitution of Pakistan it iswritten clearly that state will provide free education to every individual tillsecondary school, but still our think tanks are failed to figure out any properplan to implement this. The government is failed to provide these opportunitiesto the people and for higher education private sector is too costly thateveryone is unable to afford that. That is another reason of staying out of thehigher education.
Socialconstraints: Social constraint is defined as therules set by any society for its population. There is huge role is society instaying out of the education is family background and unplanned family system.The biggest curse of our society is that we don’t consider education importantfor growth and prosperity of society. In rural areas one thing is very commonpeople don’t tend to send their girls to colleges for higher education thoughit is been observed this trend is getting changed in past few years but stillneeds a huge amount of improvement. Gender gap:One of the major factor that hinder the enrolment rates of girls includepoverty, cultural obstacles, illiteracy of parents and parental concern aboutsafety and mobility of their daughters. Society should emphasis on the securityand protection of girls to increase the literacy rate.
Cost of education:the cost of education in Pakistan is considerably high in private centers thateveryone cannot afford it. Although government is trying to provide basic primaryeducation free of cost but the environment and facilities are not good enoughto encourage people to enroll their children in government institutions. As forhigher education private universities are charging huge amount which everyonecan’t afford in our society.
War on Terror: Pakistan is been engaged in war against the terror sincelast 2002 which has affected the security situation of country really badly,bomb blasts are taken place in many institutes throughout the country. This warhas immensely affected the northern Pakistan, FATA and Baluchistan areas. Funds for Education:Pakistan spends lowest on education as it is 2.4%.
At national level, 89%education expenditure comprises of current expenses such as teacher’s salarywhile 11% on the development expenditure which is not enough to raise thequality of education. We are one of those nations where education is at leastpriority and it’s an era of technological competition but due to poorgovernment officials we don’t have any proper planning about educational systemand no proper infrastructure for actual basic education. Conclusion: Theeducational system of Pakistan is undergoing the development phase since theday one, no doubt it is getting better day by day but the pace of developmentis very low. Pakistan is facing major planning and policy making issues andmore importantly the financial issues in educational system. Politicians arenot much serious to resolve this issue because their own families are not partof this system at any stage. As I said situation is getting better graduallybut pace is low so government is now investing some funds for teacher’s advancetrainings workshops and seminars for awareness about upcoming technologies andto make the learning more effective. There is another factor which is hugebarrier in educational system of Pakistan is political and organizationalstructure of departments is not much effective. If we really want to competewith world of technology we have to take some important and major steps to makeour educational system better and to provide a good and healthy educationalenvironment for our upcoming generations.