Abstract of the over populated country, so the





is the basic element of building any nation’s way towards the success and
prosperity. Pakistan is facing huge educational crisis since day of
independence. The purpose of this research is to identify the problems and
issues in educational system of Pakistan. In this paper we have listed all the
issues which are becoming the hurdle in providing the good education or at
least the basic education to everyone in Pakistan, highlighting the factors of
and giving the solution to that issues.

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Educational system:

Educational system consists of all the private and government centers that are
delivering the formal education. This also includes the physical
infrastructure, students, resources and a set of rules which are being followed
by everyone in educational system.  These
centers can be government, private, semi-private or semi-govt. As we are
talking about the system so it also includes the ministry of education which is
managing all these educational operations and educational boards which are
conducting the examination system region wise. The most important part of educational
system is all the rules and regulation which every private and government
institution has to accept and follow to remain in the system.


Educational system in Pakistan:

                                                              Pakistan is emerging as one of the over
populated country, so the educational system of Pakistan is made up of 260903 educational
centers which are serving 41018384 students with 1535465 teachers on the whole.
These are the huge figures. The number of private centers is less than the
number of government centers 80067 and 180845 respectively. Educational system
of Pakistan is consists of 5 major phases which are given below.

Primary education:
primary education starts from initial step which is grade 1 till grade 5. That
is the basic step to enter in the educational system and then pursue the
educational career but hardly 60% children completes the primary education and
goes to next level.

Middle education:
Middle education is from grade 6 till grade 8 but the subjects choosing options
is not much appreciated in rural areas due to lack of facilities of new
technology. The rural areas still prefers the single sex educational system.

Secondary Education: Secondary school is further classified into two
categories secondary school and higher secondary school. Secondary school
covers the grade 9 and 10, so to clear secondary school you have to sit in a
regional board exam and then you can proceed to higher secondary school which
covers the grade 11 and 12. This grade builds the base for your professional
career as you have to specifically choose a field from engineering, medical,
social sciences and commerce group.

University education: After completing the higher secondary level
successfully students are allowed to get admissions in their related
disciplines like engineering, medical sciences. That is the gateway to further
higher education.


Use of Native language vs. international language:

start from the measured facts that above 50 million children are not enrolled
in school or dropped out of the school in the early stages. The children whose native
language is not the language of instruction are more likely to drop out or fail
I early grades. Actually the case issue is when a child starts going to the school
in initial stages he/she was communication with family in native language and
then suddenly he’s onto the mission of learn Modern languages. At the very
start of educational phase children needs to be taught in native language
instead of pushing them towards modern language, centers should pay more attention
to involve children in education rather than making it tough for them to even
understand a bit of their lesson. The system should be more focused on making
the enjoyable start of children’s educational career, so he/she can put his/her
interest in education. The system should be more concerned about the gain of
knowledge rather than gain the command on international languages. According to
a survey conducted in secondary level schools 40% of students drop out of
school just because they are not good at English or they are unable to pass
English exam. Same is the case with higher secondary school where whole
syllabus is in English and the students coming from rural areas don’t feel
comfortable with this and some of them drop out of colleges and some of them
just start memorizing the sentences without even knowing the meanings or
concepts of lessons. International language should be optional not compulsory.


One system for all:

                                       The educational system of every country is
same throughout the government and private sectors. In constitution of Pakistan
it is been stated clearly that government should provide the free education
till secondary school to every child, but the reality is totally opposite to
this. The government has completely failed to provide the basic quality
education and basic facilities of education in schools so that’s the main
reason of rapid growth of private institutions. According to a recent research
on primary and middle level education sector in Pakistan have drawn attention
to the fact that percentage of children going to private schools has increased
drastically. These private schools are growing their institutions successfully
just because government is failing to complete its duty. These private schools
are not that much expensive so they are targeting not only the rich but the
poor or middle class people as well. They fact is that even the poor people
don’t want to send their kids to government schools just because the lack of
facilities and improper infrastructure. The private schools are providing
better quality of education as compared to public schools that is another
reason of diverting the parent’s attention towards private schools.


There is
no issue if someone want to study in private centers but that is for sure if
quality of education is improved in public sector then no one wants to miss
that opportunity and in other words we can say our constitutional right. The
government should deploy a monitoring system at least to ensure the same course
outline for private and public institutions. There should be a same syllabus
for everyone from grade one till secondary standard. The government should form
a department province vise to make policy like


the curriculum

the syllabus

the standards of education till secondary level

the Islamic education compulsory

the basic advance technology facilities



Quality and Quantity of Education:

the quality is always preferred above quantity in every field of life same is
the case should be with the educational system of Pakistan. To improve the
living standards of people in Pakistan more focus should be on quality of
education rather than quantity and this goal could be accomplish be arranging
the innovation trainings for teachers. The basic purpose of these trainings
should be to give awareness to teachers about how to involve children in
educational process and how to make them innovative and creative as we are
focusing on secondary school level right now.

The quality of education has a huge role of teachers to put their best
in the students to get the most out of this educational system and students.
The teachers are the central characters of this quality learning of the
students, as teachers are intensely involved in this process to transfer the
best of their knowledge to their students. The Teaching is a respectable
profession and they are esteemed professionals but they do need to keep
learning about the advanced ways if interactive learning. The government should
arrange seminars, trainings and workshops for teachers to enhance their skills.


Gender biases in Educational

gender discrimination can be seen everywhere in Pakistan in almost every sector,
but this gender difference in educational system is more highlighted and
thoughtful. The gender discrimination is actually not an issue which is not at
the government end but that’s actually the mentality of our society which is
causing this discrimination. In urban areas this discrimination is getting
reduced and females are getting involved in almost every field of life and
going for higher studies and making their way to the professional life. In
rural areas the situation is quiet worst, the people have a perception that
women are only for household work and they don’t need to study. They just need
to learn the household work and that’s all they need from a woman’s life. This
perception has to be changed if we want to be successful as a nation. Education
and economy are directly linked to each other, so if any nation wants to become
economically strong they need to invest big on education and more importantly
on equal educational opportunities for males and females. Only those nations
will survive in upcoming years who will give prime importance to education.

 Pakistan has failed to reduce the
poverty rate from the society just because of low literacy rate. As only 57% is
literacy rate of Pakistan according to a survey which was conducted in 2012,
and the 57% literacy rate means that we have this ratio for those people who
are able to read and write it’s not about the higher education. Pakistan is one
of those nations which are investing arguably low on education and there are
not equal opportunities for female as 52% of our population consists of female.




of Proper Planning:  The educational system of Pakistan is facing
some serious lack of planning issues. As in the constitution of Pakistan it is
written clearly that state will provide free education to every individual till
secondary school, but still our think tanks are failed to figure out any proper
plan to implement this. The government is failed to provide these opportunities
to the people and for higher education private sector is too costly that
everyone is unable to afford that. That is another reason of staying out of the
higher education.    


constraints: Social constraint is defined as the
rules set by any society for its population. There is huge role is society in
staying out of the education is family background and unplanned family system.
The biggest curse of our society is that we don’t consider education important
for growth and prosperity of society. In rural areas one thing is very common
people don’t tend to send their girls to colleges for higher education though
it is been observed this trend is getting changed in past few years but still
needs a huge amount of improvement.


Gender gap:
One of the major factor that hinder the enrolment rates of girls include
poverty, cultural obstacles, illiteracy of parents and parental concern about
safety and mobility of their daughters. Society should emphasis on the security
and protection of girls to increase the literacy rate.


Cost of education:
the cost of education in Pakistan is considerably high in private centers that
everyone cannot afford it. Although government is trying to provide basic primary
education free of cost but the environment and facilities are not good enough
to encourage people to enroll their children in government institutions. As for
higher education private universities are charging huge amount which everyone
can’t afford in our society. 


War on Terror: Pakistan is been engaged in war against the terror since
last 2002 which has affected the security situation of country really badly,
bomb blasts are taken place in many institutes throughout the country. This war
has immensely affected the northern Pakistan, FATA and Baluchistan areas.


Funds for Education:
Pakistan spends lowest on education as it is 2.4%. At national level, 89%
education expenditure comprises of current expenses such as teacher’s salary
while 11% on the development expenditure which is not enough to raise the
quality of education. We are one of those nations where education is at least
priority and it’s an era of technological competition but due to poor
government officials we don’t have any proper planning about educational system
and no proper infrastructure for actual basic education.



Conclusion: The
educational system of Pakistan is undergoing the development phase since the
day one, no doubt it is getting better day by day but the pace of development
is very low. Pakistan is facing major planning and policy making issues and
more importantly the financial issues in educational system. Politicians are
not much serious to resolve this issue because their own families are not part
of this system at any stage. As I said situation is getting better gradually
but pace is low so government is now investing some funds for teacher’s advance
trainings workshops and seminars for awareness about upcoming technologies and
to make the learning more effective. There is another factor which is huge
barrier in educational system of Pakistan is political and organizational
structure of departments is not much effective. If we really want to compete
with world of technology we have to take some important and major steps to make
our educational system better and to provide a good and healthy educational
environment for our upcoming generations.