Abstract— use a file transfer protocol to download

Abstract— File transfer applications are considered the secondlargest source of data on networks after e-mail.  Users of the Internet or other online servicesuse them commonly. They find a server with the desired informationand use a file transfer protocol to download the file(s).Similarly, users of corporate networks need to transfer files back and forthusing a file transfer protocol. This paper discusses how we can combine the StarBurstMulticast File Transfer Protocol (MFTP) with Peer to Peer (P2P) protocol tocreate a more reliable multicast protocol for transfer large files.Keywords— Large File Transfer; Multicast, Peer to Peer (P2P);Multicast File Transfer Protocol (MFTP)                                                                                                                                                       I.

         Introduction Using regular client-server or even peer-to-peer filetransfer protocols is not efficient when distributing big files over the networkfrom a single source to multiple receivers. Therefore, bandwidth usage and datastorage reading from multicast networking can enhance transferring a series ofbig files to many different recipients. Section I begins with a brief overview ofMulticast and P2P networksA.    Multicast NetworksThemulticast is a mechanism used to support group communication applications such asaudio and video conferencing, multi-party games and content distribution.

IP multicast is used transmit IP datagrams from one source to multipledestinations in a LAN or WAN.With IP multicast, acopy of the information sent by applicationsto a group address canreach allthe receivers who are part of that group as shown in Figure1.  Figure 1 Multicast NetworkMulticast technology operates lesser bandwidth as it deals with a group of receivers. IP multicast routingprotocols usea large,heterogeneous network such as the Internet to deliver datagramsfrom one source to multiple of destinations efficiently2.B.    Peer-to-peer (P2P) NetworksP2P is a type of network communication in which two peers (end users) are allowed to sharefiles and data without passing through aserver and both workstations have equivalent capabilities and responsibilities as shown in Figure 2.Figure 2 Peer To Peer Network P2P is a type ofnetwork that is completely different from client/server architectures shown in Figure 3. In P2P network, peers are computer systems connected to each other via the Internet 2, while in client/serverarchitectures manycomputers are dedicated to serving the others.

Figure3 Client/Server NetworkThe process beginswith a user running a peer-to-peer file-sharing software (for example, ?Torrent)on his computer and sending out a request for the file he wants to download then.The file can be located through the file-sharing software querying othercomputers connected to the Internet and running the software. When the desiredfile is found on a computer’s hard drive, it can be downloaded. Others usingthe file-sharing software can get the file(s) they want from your computer’shard drive as well 3.  Itis true that the file-transfer load is distributed among the peers (computers)exchanging files, yet others searching and transferring files from someone’scomputer can cause bottlenecks. Moreover, what limits the number of computersthe software can search for the requested file is a leeching user who downloadsfiles and immediately disconnects. So, some people cannot get files from hissystem. Section II of the paper deals with the StarBurst Multicast FileTransfer Protocol(MFTP), its components and how it works, and it contains the possible drawbacksof the MFTP.

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Section III provides the proposed solution to avoid the drawbacksof the MFTP. Section IV shows a comparison between the proposed solution andthe Torrent. Some conclusions and future work are given in Section V.                                                                                                                                           II.        The StarBurst MFTPThe new starburstMFTP (Multicast File Transfer Protocol) and product line based on it have beendeveloped by Starburst communications.

This protocol operates over UDP in theTCP/IP protocol suite 4. Three basic entities are defined in the starburstMFTP protocol. These are the frame, known as a link layer entity and has thesame meaning for starburst MFTP as for other protocols, the block consistingusually of hundreds or even thousands of frames and a pass, which consists ofthe transmission of the whole file on the first pass, and missing pieces onsubsequent passes.A.    How Does The StarBurst MFTP Works?As the transmission of the file begins, the StarBurst MFTP continues to transmitthe blocks until the file is transmitted entirely and it does not stop aftereach block to wait for acknowledgment as shown in Figure 4. Figure 4 First Pass of MFTP Then, it sends another “Pass” consisting ofonly those frames that are acknowledged negatively as shown in Figure 5. Athird or fourth pass may be required to complete error-free transmission to allclients.Figure 5 Second Pass of MFTP B.

    Drawbacks of the StarBurst MFTPA lot of pressure onthe server to send all the negatively acknowledged blocks. And the number ofPasses could very high for large file transfer (more on network traffics).                                                                                                                                                     III.

       Proposed IdeaThe idea is to combines multicast and P2P for large file transfer anduse the P2P networking for error checking and correction. Rather thanretransmits those frames that were negatively acknowledged, each recipientseeks the missing frames from the others recipients. (similar to bit torrentprotocol). The first pass will not be different from the StarBurst Multicast FileTransfer Protocol (MFTP)m the blocks will be transmitted continuously withoutwaiting for any acknowledgment as shown in Figure 6.Figure 6 First Pass of MFTP with P2P  The difference will be in the later passes; each recipientwill seek any missing frames from the other recipients as shown in Figure 7.

  Figure 7 Later Passes of MFTP with P2PA special case may occurwhen one or more than one frames are missing from all the recipients. In thiscase, each recipient sends a negative acknowledgment for the missing frame/s.Then the sender will retransmit only the missing frame/s as shown in Figure 8. Figure 8 Special Case of MFTP with P2PBy using the Peer to Peer (P2P) protocol, we can reduce the pressure onthe server.

Also, reduce the number of retransmitting the missing frame/s bythe server.                                                                     IV.       COMPARISON BETWEEN TORRENTAND THE PROPOSED SOLUTIONThe proposed idea may look similar to theTorrent in the way it works.

Studies indicated that BitTorrent was responsiblefor an impressive 35% of all Internet traffic 7. This value could be reducedby using a reliable multicast protocol instead of using the Torrent. Table 1identifies some similarities and the differences between the Torrent and theproposed idea.     Table 1 Comparison Between Torrentand MFTP & P2P Aspect Torrent MFTP with P2P Network Unicast Multicast + Unicast (for error correction) Protocol Operates Over TCP Operates Over TCP Bandwidth Consumes a lot of Bandwidth Reduce the Bandwidth Load                                                                                                                               V.        Conclusion and Future Work      By combining the StarBurstMulticast File Transfer Protocol (MFTP) with Peer to Peer (P2P) protocol, wecan create a more reliable multicast protocol to transfer large files by usingP2P for error checking and correction. This is also could solve the problems ofthe Torrent Protocol. Further research can be done in the future to evaluateand validate the proposed idea.References 1     “File sharing usingIP-Multicast”, Webcache.

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htm.Accessed: 28- Dec- 2017.  7     ERNESTO, “BitTorrent StillDominates Internet’s Upstream Traffic – TorrentFreak”, TorrentFreak, 2015.Online. Available: https://torrentfreak.com/bittorrent-still-dominates-internets-upstream-traffic-151208/.Accessed: 28- Dec- 2017.