AbstractIn the most important recent developments in Bangladesh,

AbstractIn this paper, I seek to identify which factorsaffect the Socio-Economic and gender inequality regarding the education ofgirls and boys, as well as of women and men, across two cohorts of marriedwomen in Bangladesh. In particular, I look at the relative importance of anindividual woman’s own educational background and those of her spouse and otherfamily members in shaping her attitudes toward gender equality in education.InequalityTisTlikeTanTepidemicTforTaTcountryTwhichTdestroysTaTcountry’sTdevelopmentTnotTonlyTforTaTgenerationTbutTalsoTforTaTlongTperiodTofTtime.TAmongTallTkindsTofTinequalitiesTgenderTinequalityTisTtheTextremeToneTasTitTaffectsTallTotherTsectors.TAswomenThasTcontributionTinTallTsectors.TBringingTwomenTintoTtheTmainstreamTeconomicactivitiesTandTensuringTequalTopportunityTisToneTofTtheTmajorTtargetsTofTMillenniumTDevelopmentTGoalsTasTpursuedTbyTtheTgovernmentTofTBangladesh.

IntroductionItaimTtoTaddTtoTthisTbodyTofTworkTbyTlookingTatTchangesTinTattitudesTregardingT someTaspectsTofTSocioeconomicTandTgenderTinequalityTdueTtoTeducationTinTBangladesh duringTaTperiodTofTrapidTsocialTtransformation.TThisTworkTisTofTparticularTsignificanceTforTaTnumberTofTreasons.TFirstTwhileTinTdevelopedTcountriesTwithThighqualityTdatasetsTthereThaveTbeenTmanyTanalysesTofTgenderTnormsTandTattitudes,TinTdevelopingTcountriesqualityTdataTthereThaveTbeenTrelativelyTfewTstudiesTonTgenderTnorms,TandTthoseTthatT haveTbeenTconductedThaveTbeenTrestrictedTtoTsmallTsamplesTandTtoTtopicsTsuchTasT attitmaking,TsexTpreferencesTforTchildren,TandTviolenceTagainstTwomen.

TInTaddition,TmostTofTtheTresearchTconductedTinTdevelopingTcountriesThasTfocusedTonTusingTattitudesTasexplanatoryTvariablesTforTaTnumberTofToutcomes,TratherTthanTasToutcomeTvariablesTinT theirTownTright.PreviousTresearchTonTeducationTandTgenderTnormsThasTprimarilyTfocusedonTtheTquestionTofTwhetherTeducationTisTaTliberalizingTinfluenceTorTaTconstraintTonT attitudesTregardingTgenderTequality.TTheTresultsTofTtheseTstudiesTare,TtoTsayTtheTleast,TequivocalT(KaneT1995).TITsituateTmyTanalysisTonTchangingTattitudesTregardingTgirl’sT educationTwithinTtheToverallTcontextTofTeducationalTexpansionTinTBangladesh,TandTtheTdefinitionsTofTsexTrolesTandTexpectationsTinTtheTculture.TBecauseTITprovideTquantitativeevidenceTonTtheTdeterminantsTofTgenderTeducationTnormsTinTBangladesh,TmyTworkTalsocomplementsTtheTrelatedTearlierTworkTbyTSchulerTandTcolleagues,TwhichTinvolvedTin depthTinterviewsTandTgroupTdiscussionsT(see,Te.

g.,TSchulerTetTal.T2006T(andTtheTreferen-cesTtherein)).Background BangladeshTprovidesTanTinterestingTcontextTforTanTanalysisTofTtheTchangesTinTgenderT normsTregardingTeducation.TTheTgrowthTinTaccessTtoTeducation,TandTespeciallyTinTaccestoTsecondaryTeducationTforTgirls,TmayTbeTBangladesh’sTmostTdramaticTachievementTinT theTlastTtwoTdecades.TInTtheTareaTofTfemaleTsecondaryTeducation,TBangladeshTstandsT outTasTaTshiningTsuccessTstoryTamongTlowincomeTcountries,TBangladesh’sTprogressTisT especiallyTcommendableTbecauseTtheTgrowthTinTfemaleTeducationTtookTplaceTwithinTaT democraticTregime,TandTstartedTfromTaTveryTlowTbase. Figure1:Enrollment rates in EducationTable: 1 Gross enrollmentrates of boys and girls by level and region Primary (Grade 1-5) Lower Sec.

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(Grade 6-8) Secondary (Grade 9-10) Higher Secondary (11-12) Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Boys Girls Barisal 93.9 93.6 55.

4 58.9 45.8 58.1 44.7 35 Chittagong 83.5 84.

5 48.1 58.2 37.

2 49.9 34.6 32.8 Dhaka 86.1 84.5 52.

7 58.4 62.2 66.

6 32.3 33.3 Khulna 96.

1 99.5 60.7 66.9 58.3 71.5 39.3 36.

2 Rajshahi 85.5 91.5 53.5 70.3 50.

3 57.5 38.2 33.4 Sylhet 83.

2 85.7 57.1 36.3 39.

7 58 29.1 28.5  Source: BANBEIS (Government ofBangladesh), 2015/016The growth in education and theaccompanying social changes have probably been the most important recentdevelopments in Bangladesh, but there are others as well. Starting from a verylow base of 9%, female labor force participation picked up to over 22% duringthe years 1993?2003. While, as indicated, the female labor participation hasincreased, the female-male gapTinTlaborTforceTparticipationT(LFP)ThasTalsoTincreasedTinTrelativeTtermsToverTtheT pastTfewTdecades: InT1990TtheTLFPTwasT61.

7%TforTfemalesTandT88.4TforTmales,TbutTbyT2011TitThadT decreasedTtoT57.2%TforTfemalesTandT84.3%TforTmalesT(WDIT2013).TEvocativeTimagesTofThundredsTofTyoungTgirlsTwalkingTeveryTmorningTtoTtheTgarmentTfactoriesThaveTbeenetchedTintoTtheTpopularTimaginationTasTaTmetaphorTforTprogress.

TInfantTmortalityThasT declinedTfasterTinTBangladeshTthanTinTanyTotherTcountryTinTSouthTAsia.TTheTtotalT fertilityTrateTtodayTisTlessTthanTone-third of the ratefour decades ago, having declined from about 6.9 in 1971 to about 2.2 in 2011(WDI 2013). Meanwhile,TtheTmicrocreditTrevolutionTsweepingTtheTcountrysideThasTgivenTwomenT visibilityTandTgreaterTstatus.

TBetterTwaterTandTsanitationTfacilitiesThaveTreducedTtheT drudgeryTexperiencedTbyTmothers,TwhoTnowThaveTtimeTforTotherTactivities.. AnTinformationTandTcommunicationTboomThasTresultedTfromTtheTwidespreadTavailabilityofTradios,Ttelevisions,TandTmobileTphones.TTheTexpansionTofTruralTroadsTandTofTelectrificationThaveTenabledTmanyTpeopleTtoTfindTworkTbeyondTtraditionalTlow–productivitycottage industries.

The availability of more secure modes of transport has alsogiven people greater mobility, allowing more women to move out of theirvillages to take jobs in the city (Hossain and Bose 2004; World Bank 2008).WhileTtheTprogressTdescribedTaboveTisTreal,TseriousTproblemsTremainTinTBangladesh,andnewTonesTareTsurfacing.TThus,TwhileTwomen’sTstatusThasTimprovedTdramaticallyTinTthe lastTfewTdecades,TgenderTinequalitiesTpersistTinTmanyTareas,TsuchTasTinTaccess to markets,political forums, and high-tech services.

Moreover, there are sharp disparitiesbased on an individual’s place of residence, wealth quintile, and ethnicity.The practice of dowry payments is on the rise, and is one of the reasons whythe average girl is married off by the time she is 15 years old.ITdescribedTaboveTtheTextentTtoTwhichTeducationThasTexpandedTinTBangladesh.TITalsoTnotedTthatTeducationalTopportunitiesTforTgirlsThaveTchangedTtheTconservativeTmarriageTmarket,TasTincreasingTnumbersTofTwomenTare,TinTcontrastTtoTtheirTmothers’generation,TmarryingTmenTlessTeducatedTthanTthem.TClearly,TtheTdemandTforTeducationTisTnotTonlycontingentTonTculturalTreasons,TbutThasTsomeTimportantTstructuralTcorrelates.

TForTtheT pastTtwoTdecades,TBangladeshThasTpursuedTaTpolicyTofTenhancingTgirl’sTeducationT throughTinnovativeTincentiveTschemesTthatTprovideTstipendsTtoTgirlsTwhoTremain enrolledTinTsecondaryTschool.TOverTtheTpastTdecade,TNGOsThaveTalsoTcontributedT substantiallyTtoTtheTexpansionTofTeducationalTopportunitiesTforTgirlsTandTofTlaborT marketTopportunitiesTforTwomenT(WorldTBankT2008:TChT1).However,TrecentTqualitativeTworkThasTshownTthatTperceptionsTamongTSouthTAsiansTofTgirl’sTeducationTandTgenderTnormsTinTgeneralTareTchangingTrapidly.TToday,TlocalT populationsTtakeTgreatTprideTinTtheTexpansionTofTgirl’sTeducationTinTtheirTtowns,TandT inTtheTimpactTthisTexpansionThasTonTtheTcommunity,TtheTwell -being of children,and the empowerment of women (World Bank 2008: Ch 3). How and why did thischange in perceptions of education come about? At the macro level, I argue thata supply- sideTpushTforTeducationTtappedTtheTlatentTdemandTforTeducationTamongTfamiliesTofT girls,TwhichTseemsTtoThaveTexistedTalongsideTconservativeTnormsTandTvalues.

TOnceTthe impactTofTeducationTonTgirlsTandTcommunitiesTbecameTapparent,TthisTfueledTfurtherT demand.TWomen’sTaccessTtoTnewTjobTopportunitiesTinTtheTgarmentTsectorTandTwithT NGOsTshowedTfamiliesTthatTgirlsTcanThaveTanTeconomicTworthTasTwell.TGloballyTofT course,ThigherTreturnsTtoTeducationTforTwomenThaveTbeenTshownTinTaTnumberTof studies, including Psacharopoulos'(1994) cross-country review, a study by Schultz (1994), and TandTresearchTfromTsuchTdiverseTsettingsTasTaiwanT(GindlingTetTal.T1995),TtheTCzechTRepublicTandTSlovakiaT(ChaseT1997),TandTIndiaT(MalathyTandTDuraisamyT1993;Duraisamy2000). 3.

Dataand methods This study was conducted based on the data on varioussecondary sources like, Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES), LabourForce Survey (LFS) and other reports conducted by the Bangladesh Bureau ofStatistics (BBS), Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS), BangladeshBureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS) etc. Using thesedata, some projections were made by using the simple mathematical equation:  Pt=Po (1+ rt) Where, Pt = Value ofthe present year Po= Value of the previous year t = Time interval between previous and present years r = Growth rateDifferentTstatisticalTreports,TrelevantTresearchTpapers,TbooksTandTmanyTnationalTandT internationalTjournalsThaveTalsoTbeenTreviewedTforTthisTstudy.TOneTofTtheTreasonsTwhythereTisTrelativelyTlittleTempiricalTliteratureTonTchangingTnormsTinTSouthTAsiaTisTthatT thereTareTfewTdatasetsTthatTallowTforTsuchTanalyses.TIndividualTquestionsTinTtheT DemographicTandTHealthTSurveysTonTattitudesTtowardTviolence,Tfertility,TandTindividual diseasesThaveTallowedTforTsomeTanalysisTofTattitudesTinTtheseTareas,TbutTveryTfewT questionsTprovideTtheTinformationTneededTforTanTanalysisTofTattitudesTtowardTgenderT inequality.TToTconductTmyTanalysis,TweTwereTableTtoTuseTtheTWorldTBankTSurveyTonGenderTNormsTinTBangladeshT(WBGNS)T2006,TaTuniqueTdatasetTwhichThasTaTnumberTofTquestionsTonTattitudesTtowardTgenderTequalityTinTeducation.

My aim is tounderstand whether two cohorts of women display differences in terms of gendernorms and/or theTcorrelatesTofTtheseTnorms,TandTwhetherTtheseTnormsTdifferTwithTregardTtoTtheT educationTofTgirlsTversusTboys,TandTofTwivesTversusThusbands,Trespectively. The WBGNS 2006 is the first comprehensive, nationallyrepresentative household survey of gender norms and practices in Bangladesh. Itis based on a sample of adults that include married women in the age groups15?25 and 45?59, married male heads of households in the age group 25?50, and500 community leaders (such as Union Parishad (UP) members, Imams/Moulvis(religious leaders), primary school teachers, and Madrasah teachers). Thesamples were drawn in two stages. In the first stage, 91 clusters 5 wereselected as a subsample of the 361 clusters included in the Bangladesh.   5 Acluster is a census-defined village that corresponds roughly to a mouza villagein rural areas and a census block (part of a mohollah) in an urban area.     ResultsHereThaveTtwoTestimationTsamples:TolderTwomenT(1,431TinitialTobservations)TandT youngerTwomenT(1,543TinitialTobservations).TAsTexplanatoryTvariablesTwereTfoundTtoTbemissingTforTsomeTobservations,TtheTsamplesTusedTinTtheTfinalTanalysesTwereTslightlyT smaller.

TinTanalyzingTtheTdifferenceTinTpatternsTbetweenTtheTtwoTcohortsTofTwomenT intheTsample,TITcaptureTintergenerationalTchanges.TOfTcourse,TitTisTentirelyTpossibleTthattheTdifferenceTisTsimplyTaTfunctionTofTageTandTlife–cycle,and not of cohort. I believe, however, that after controlling for a number ofdemographic characteristics, we are able to capture most of the effects ofchanges over time.Bringing women into the mainstreameconomic activities and ensuring equal opportunity isToneTofTtheTmajorTtargetsTofTMillenniumTDevelopmentTGoalsT(MDGs)TasTpursuedTbytheTgovernmentTofTBangladesh.THowever,TwomenTinTBangladeshTareTdominatedTbyTaTmatrilinealTandTpatriarchalTkinshipTsystem,TwhichTenforcesTtheTsocialTandTeconomicT dependenceTofTwomenTonTmenTandTprescribesTtheTrelativeTlowerTstatusTofTwomen.T Although,TthereThasTbeenTsteadyTprogressTinTreducingTgenderTinequalityTinTdifferentT sectorsTlikeTeducationTemploymentTetc.TbutTthereTexistsTaThugeTinequalityTinTtheseTsectorsTofTBangladeshTandTparticipationTofTwomenTisTveryTlowTcomparedTtoTtheirTmalecounterpart.

Gender inequality hasappeared as the major stumbling barrier in achieving the development targets.Changes Socio-Economic Gender Inequality in EducationNumerousTaffirmativeTactionsTwereTalsoTintroducedTtoTenhanceTtheTfemaleTliteracy.T However,TthereTremainsTaTconsiderableTgapTinTenrollment.

TLiteracyTasTwellTasTtheT significantlyThigherTproportionTofTfemaleTdropoutTfromTtheTsystemTisTstillTaTmajorT concern.TTheTliteracyTofTmaleTchildrenTwasT49.5TpercentTinT2000TatTtheTnationalTlevel,whichThasTincreasedTtoT61.12TpercentTinT2010TwithTanTannualTaverageTincreasingTrateTofT1.16Tpercent.

TContinuationTofTthisTrateTindicatesTthatTtheTliteracyTrateTofTtheTmaleTchildrenTmyTincreaseTtoT65.77TpercentTinTtheTnationalTlevelTbyT2014TwhichTisT34.23T percentTlowerTthanTtheTNationalTEducationTPolicyT(NEP,T2010)TtargetTofT100Tpercent.TWhereas,TtheTliteracyTrateTofTfemaleTchildrenTinTtheTnationalTlevelTwasT40.1TpercentT  inT2000,TwhichThasTincreasedTtoT54.8TpercentTinT2010TwithTanTannualTaverageT increasingTrateTofT1.47Tpercent.TUnderTtheTbusinessTasTusualTscenario,TtheTliteracyTrateofTtheTfemaleTmightTbeT60.

68TpercentTatTtheTnationalTlevelTinT2014,TwhichTisT39.32TpercentTlowerTthanTtheTNationalTEducationTPolicyT(NEP,T2010)TtargetTofT100Tpercent. There are alsohigh rural-urban variations in case of the literacy rate by sex where the ruralwomen are far behind than their urban counterparts and male counterparts aswell. GenderTdisparityTisTsignificantlyThighTinThigherTeducationT(universityTlevel).

TInT2001,TamongTtheTtotalTstudentsTinTtheTpublicTuniversities,TonlyT24.3TpercentTwereTfemaleTstudentsTwhereasTthemaleTenrollmentTcomprisesTalmostTthreeTtimesThigherT(75.7Tpercent)T thanTthatTofTtheTfemale.TItTisTalsoTobservedTthatToverTtheTyears,TbothTmale and femaleenrollment in the university level is increasing with a slower rate.

In therecent time, the rate at which the female enrollment in the primary level isincreasing, the enrollment in higher education is not increasing at the samepace.ThereTexistsTanTimmenseTinequalityTbetweenTtheTmaleTandTfemaleTinTBangladeshTasT farTasTemploymentTstatusTisTconcerned.THowever,TalthoughTthereTareTsomeTprogressesT inTtheTrecentTyearsTbutTitTisTstillTlowTthanTthatTofTexpected. In 1993-94,employed male population was 57.5 percent and it was 10.

6 percent for female atthe national level. The percentage of employed population for both male andfemale has decreased to 44.2 percent and 9.7 percent respectively in 1999-2000.Again, the percentage of employed male and female has increased to 68.3 percentand 22.9 percent in 2007 from 67.

5 percent and 15.2 percent in 2004respectively at the national level. Furthermore, it is also observed that theincreasing rate in the percentage of employed population has occurred with ahigher rate for female than that of male. Although there is little progress inthe percentage of economically active population, the number of population whoare unemployed are still increasing.

Unemployed population has increased from1.3 million in 1995-96 to 2.7 million in 2009 with an average of 0.13 millionper year. In case of male, it has increased with an annual average of 0.

06million and for female it was 0.05 million at the same period (1995-96 to2009).GlobalTresearchThasTprovidedTevidenceTonTtheTcriticalTlinkageTofTeducationalTstatusTanditTisTbeingToneTofTtheTkeyTfactorsTthatTdetersTwomenTfromTequalTparticipationTinT socioTeconomicTactivitiesTwithTmenTandTstrengthensTinequalityTbetweenTsexes.TInTBangladesh,TwomenTareTstillTrestrictedTwithinTtheirThomeTfromTtheTbirthTwithTtheT perceptionthatTtheyTwillTgoTawayTtoTotherThomeTafterTtheirTmarriage.

THence,TtheyTdoTnotTneedTeducation.TTraditionally,TfemaleTeducationThasTbeenTaccordedTaTlowTpriorityT inTBangladeshTdueTtoTpoverty,TsocialTdirectivesTforTfemaleTseclusionTandTtheTlowTvaleofTgirls.THowever,TtheTsituationTisTchangingTinTrecentTtime.TSinceTtheTworldTDeclarationTforTAllT(1990),TtheTgovernmentTintroducedTvariousTmeasuresTtoTintensifyTbasicTeducationTforTallTwithTparticularTfocusTonTfemaleTeducation.TNumerousTaffirmativeTactionsT wereTalsoTintroducedTtoTenhanceTfemaleTliteracy.THowever,TthereTremainsTaT considerableTgapTinTenrollmentTliteracyTasTwellTasTtheTsignificantlyThigherTproportionT ofTfemaleT dropoutTfromTtheTsystemTisTstillTaTmajorTconcern.TheTpercentageTofTliterateTchildrenTalsoTvariesTaccordingTtoTtheTsex.TTheTliteracyTofTmaleT childrenTwasT49.

5TpercentTinT2000TatTnationalTlevelTwhichThasTincreasedTtoT61.12TpercentT inT2010TwithTanTannualTaverageTincreasingTrateTofT1.16Tpercent.TContinuationTofTthisTrateT indicatesTthatTtheTliteracyTrateTofTmaleTchildrenTmightTbeTincreasedTtoT65.77TpercentTatT nationalTlevelTbyT2014,TwhichTisT34.23TpercentTlowerTthanTtheTNationalTEducationTPolicyT (NEP,T2010)TtargetTofT100Tpercent.

TWhereas,TliteracyTrateTofTfemaleTchildrenTatTnationalT levelTwasT40.1TpercentTinT2000TwhichThasTincreasedTtoT54.8TpercentTinT2010 with an annualaverage increasing rate of 1.47 percent. Under the business as usual scenario,literacy rate of female might be 60.68 percent at national level in 2014, whichis 39.32 percent lower than the National Education Policy (NEP, 2010) target of100 percent.

There are also high rural-urban variations in case of literacyrate by sex. This percentage of literacy was 45.5 percent and 64.9 percent inrural and urban area for male children in 2000 which has increased to 56.

67 percentand 73.1 percent in 2010 with an annual average increasing rate of 1.1 percentand 0.

82 percent respectively. On the other hand, in 2000 literacy rate offemale was 36.1 percent and 55.3 percent for rural and urban areas which hasincreased to 50.21 percent and 67.67 percent in 2010 with an annual averageincrease rate of 1.

41 percent and 1.24 percent respectively (Table 2). Theannual average rate of increase in the percentage of female literacy atnational, rural and urban level is comparatively higher than that of male. Thismight be due to the various education enhancing activities by governments andvarious NGOs. Table 2: Current situation andfuture projection of literacy rate (<7 years of age) by sex Female Male Year National Rural Urban National Rural Urban 2000 40.1 36.1 55.3 49.

5 45.5 64.9 2005 48.

1 42.9 63.2 55.8 50.4 72.

1 2010 54.8 50.21 67.67 61.12 56.67 73.1 2015 60.

68 55.85 72.61 65.77 61.14 76.38 Source: based on BBS dataof different yearsDespite considerable progress in the percentage of literacy rate, stillit is lower than the expected. However, the percentage of the literacy rateboth for male and female are increasing but it is occurring at a slower ratethan that of the previous year.

It is observed that the annual rate of increasein the percentage of female literacy was 3.99 between 2000 and 2005 whereas itwas 2.79 percent during 2005-2010. On the other hand, this increase rate formale was 2.55 percent per year during 2000-2005 and 1.

91 percent during2005-2010. Additionally, the annual rate of increase in the female literacy was3.67, 3.91 and 2.

24 percent at the national, rural and urban level respectivelybetween 2000 and 2010. At the same tine (i.e.

2000-2010) the male literacy wasincrease with an annual rate of 2.35, 2.45 and 1.26 percent at national, ruraland urban level respectively.

Figure 2: Annual growth rate inthe percentage of literacy between 2000 and 2010 by sexSource: based on BBS dataof different yearsInTtheTrecentTyears,TtheTrateTatTwhichTfemaleTenrollmentTatTtheTprimaryTlevelTofT educationThasTincreasedTisTunlikeTtheTenrollmentTatThigherTeducationTwhichThasTnotT beenTincreasedTatTtheTsameTpace.TVariousTpositiveTinitiativesTforTfemaleTeducationT (especially at primarylevel), taken by the government, might be responsible for that. But, theircontinuation with education is breaking down due to various socio-economic andcultural reasons. Socio-cultural attitudes in the form of growingfundamentalism, increasing incidence of sexual violence and harassment againstgirls are also identified as contributing factors behind girl’s dropout of theschool system. Gender disparity is significantly high in higher education(university level). In 2001, among the total student at public universities,only 24.3 percent were female students whereas, male enrollment comprisesalmost 3 times higher (75.7 percent) than that of the female.

It is alsoobserved that, over the years, both male and female enrollment at universitylevel is increasing with a slower rate.Figure 3: Percentage of the enrolled students atuniversity level (public university) by sexSource: BANBEIS, 2011  Strengths and Limitations InTtheTpresentTresearch,TdueTtoTtimeTandTbudgetaryTconstraints,TfiftyTparticipantsTwereTselectedTpurposivelyTwhichTmayTnotTseemTtoTbeTsufficient.TFemaleTstudentsTwhoT participatedTinTtheTinterviewTsessions,TmajorityTofTthemTwereTatTtheTteenageTstageTthamightTaffectTtheTresearchToutcomes.TDespiteTvarietiesTofTlimitations,TourTresearchTfindingsThaveTsomeTimplicationsTforTgenderTsensitiveTeducationTpolicyTandTinterventionsTinT theTcontextTofTruralTBangladesh. Conclusions It is universal that participation of women in education isimperative for balanced socio-economic development as well as empowerment ofwomen. Present study findings indicate that socio-cultural prejudicesconcerning girls’ educational attainment are highly prevalent in the studyarea. In traditional rural Bangladesh, subordinated position of women made themvulnerable within the family and everywhere because it is well known that alarge number of them (women) are less educated or having no education.

Therefore, program addressing men’s attitudes toward women is needed to beintroduced. Similarly, present research findings also suggest that there aresome basic socio-cultural problems embedded in social system which isdetrimental for girls’ educational achievement. Thus, effective consciousnessprograms (e.

g. gender neutral teaching environment, interaction patternsbetween teacher and female student, gender role education) are also needed toimprove the situation (Good et al., 1973; Delamont, 1980; Graneheim & Lundman,2004). Faulty socialization process leads gender differences in learningability between boys and girls (Kelly, 1981).

At the same time, social learningprocess is an important factor that leads differences in learning behaviors ofboys and girls, because children learn all new behaviors by imitating bothadults and other children (Bandura, 1971). Hence, for ensuring girls’ educationof marginal households, door to door awareness program on children’s propersocialization and learning behaviors is required widely.