According to th?MHA, ‘communal viol?nc?’ involv?s ‘plann?d and organiz?d acts of viol?nc? by m?mb?rsof on? community against m?mb?rs of anoth?r community with th? int?nt of cr?atingor ?xpr?ssing ill-will or hatr?d and l?ading to th? loss of lif? or injuri?s top?opl?’.1Th? p?riodfollowing Partition saw continu?d outbr?aks of communal viol?nc?, with a ris?in incid?nts taking plac? in th? 1960s, oft?n involving th? dir?ct planning ofpolitical parti?s and right-wing nationalists, particularly th? RSS. Coupl?dwith social and ?conomic discrimination, this ?ncourag?d numb?r of Muslims whohad initially r?main?d in India to migrat? to Pakistan. Disproportionat? numb?rsof mor? ?ducat?d and influ?ntial Muslims w?r? amongst thos? who l?ft,contributing to ?v?n gr?at?r marginalization of Muslims in India, who w?r? incr?asinglys?gr?gat?d and ?xclud?d, a condition influ?nc?d by th? ins?curity th?y fac?d.
Viol?nc? againstMuslims spik?d in th? 1980s, with numb?r of high profil? attacks including on B?ngaliMuslims in Assam (1983), Muslims in Moradabad (1980), and Muslims in diff?r?ntparts of India in th? lat? 1980s, link?d to th? Babri Masjid d?molition mov?m?nt.Th?s? incid?nts r?fl?ct?d th? instrum?ntalization of communal viol?nc? by parti?sacross th? political sp?ctrum, including th? Indian National Congr?ss (INC) andth? BJP, th? latt?r of which saw its political influ?nc? ris? in th? 1980s. Th?BJP’s promotion of an ?xclusionary Hindu nationalism was ?xhibit?d in th? 1980sand 1990s through its involv?m?nt in a numb?r of high-profil? cas?s of communalviol?nc?, including th? d?struction of th? Babri Masjid in 1992. This incid?nt,cont?sting th? pr?s?nc? of a 16th c?ntury mosqu? in a location claim?d by som?to b? th? birthplac? of Ram, l?d not only to its d?molition by an organiz?dcrowd of Hindu prot?stors but th? subs?qu?nt outbr?ak of communal viol?nc?,with hundr?ds kill?d in riots across th? country, th? majority Muslims. Thisincid?nt was th? culmination of a protract?d campaign by Hindu ?xtr?mists,support?d by numb?r of high-ranking officials who ?ith?r ?ncourag?d or fail?dto pr?v?nt th?s? attacks. 1 MHA,’Revised guidelines of central scheme for assistance to civilian victims/familyof victims of terrorist/communal/LWE violence and cross border firing andmine/IED blasts on Indian territory’.