According to Mufti, P., et al., dearth of information on STEC infections inPakistan, and to date, of 99 diarrhea patients there are only two reportsfound positive for STEC isolates (Mufti, P., et al.,1999).
FromFaisalabad Multiplex PCR results showed that 22 (11%) of the patients werepositive for stxgenes.Among other virulence factors, plasmid borne hly and eae geneswere found in 13 (6.5 %) and 16 (8.
0 %) patients respectively.However, only 14STEC isolates were identified.The stx1, stx2, hlyand eae geneswere positive 11(78.
5%), 11(78.5%), 3(21.4%) and 6 (42.
8%) respectively.Onlythree (3) of these isolates belonged to serotype O157 (Mashkoor, Mohsin.,2007).In another study conducted in Faisalabad in which 23 putative E. coliisolates, five (21.7%) were ELISA positive for Stx production.PCRanalysis supported the presence of one or both Shiga toxin genes (stx1and stx2) in these isolates. Isolates M24 and M108 for stx2, M31 and M72 were found positive for stx1,and M91 for both genes.
PCR pointing virulence factors intimin (eae) andenterohemolysin (hlyA) showed positive amplification in all STECisolates (Mashkoor Mohsin, and Abdul Haque, et al., 2010). Diarrhealpatient samples collected from the Sindh, KPK, and Punjab Provinces, andIslamabad that included 85 and 58, 85 and 120, 195 and 27 samples from non-flood and flood areas.Ofthese samples, 39.60% (240) were positive by culture for E. coli.
However,in the months of (June–September) the surveillance period (2010–2011) from thetotal of 605 samples collected in which 27.27% (165) were confirmed as E.coli pathotypes by biochemical tests and multiplex PCR.Five E. colipathotypes where EPEC were 33 (28.6%), ETEC were 29 (25.2%), EAEC were 21(18.2%) and EHEC were 5 (4.
34%) based on multiplex PCR.Moreover only a singleEIEC (0.86%) and no DAEC strains were identified.EPEC was seen in Muzzafargarh,Punjab situated close to the rivers Chenab and Indus, EAEC and ETEC were thedominant types from Khairpur, Sindh close to the river Indus,and from Charsada,KPK situated close to the rivers Swat and Kabul.However, Only five cases ofEHEC were detected and they were from D.
I. Khan and Nowshera districts of KPK (HabibBokhari, and Muhammad Ali Shah et al.2013).The study from KPK Peshawar was conducted for theScreening of colicinogenic gram-negativerods against pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7.The data revealed that80% of human children faeces, 100% of human adult, 90% sheep faecessamples,100% cow/buffalo faeces samples, and 76% of septic tank water carriedGNR.
From total 88 samples, 175 isolates were taken randomly and sub-cultured toobtain pure cultures.Out of 175, 47 isolates showed antibacterial activityagainst the indicator strain i.e., E.
coli O157:H7. within these activeisolates, 15 human adult isolates,8 sheep isolates, 8 cow/buffalo isolates, 5human children isolates, and 11 septic tank isolates were antagonistic towards E.coli O157:H7 (Mushtaq, H., Bakht, J., Bacha, N.
2015).The 92% of Sorbitol non fermenting (SNF) biotypewas detected in dung of buffaloes.Eighty percent milk and 53% beef samplescontaminated with SNF isolates of E. coli.
The PCRresults shows 50% for O157, 60% for stx1 and 51%for stx2.E. coli O157 isa normal inhabitant of gastrointestinal tract domestic ruminant and animalfeces and acting as a primary source of contamination of beef and raw milk(Shahzad,K.A., et al., 2013).