activities isbecause they are more concerned about their body image (Cheah, Azahadi, Phang& Hazilah, 2017). According to Chang & Tsai (2015), men and women whoengaged in leisure time physical activity consistently are having low risk ofcognitive decline. Women are also considered to have more responsibilities ofcare compared to men especially for their families and they think that it isnot important for them to involve in leisure activities(Zhang, Feng, Lacanienta, & Zhen, 2017).
Being married and havingchildren act as barriers where the individuals will have limited time to engageor participate in leisure activity due to housekeeping work and childcare. Thebarriers also can cause declination in the frequency of leisure activity Munizet al., (2014, as cited in Oliveira-Brochado, Quelhas Brito &Oliveira-Brochado, 2017). A study made byOliveira-Brochado, Quelhas Brito & Oliveira-Brochado (2017) reported that leisure activity such as sportdoes not have any correlation with age in a linear or a non-linear way but somerecent studies showed that low engagement in leisure activity levels with ageshould be interpreted with caution such as to relate the variables withfrequency of participation because upper age individuals (56-65 years old)involve in leisure activity (sport) more often compared to lower ageindividuals (16-25 years old). Younger people are engaging actively in physicalleisure activity because they face less constrains compared to older people asshown by the statistic that people’s age will lessen the probability ofengagement in physical activity by 0.3% (Cheah, Azahadi, Phang & Hazilah,2017).
In contrast, another study stated that older individuals showed moreconcern and aware about their well-being so, they are more interested inengaging in leisure activity (Lera-López & Rapún-Gárate, 2007). Individualswith chronic illness are found to engage more frequent in leisure activity suchas sport or any physical leisure activities because they are having goodperception of being healthier. They emphasize that leisure activity like sportsmay have therapeutic effect and can improve their health Muniz et al., (2014,as cited in Oliveira-Brochado, Quelhas Brito & Oliveira-Brochado, 2017). Incontrast, individuals with poor health condition, they are less likely to starta physical activity routine and thus live a physically inactive lifestyle(Eberth & Smith, 2010).According to Cheahet al., (2017) individuals with higher salary participate more frequent inleisure such as physical activity compared to individuals with lower salarybecause it restricted them from accessing to any facilities such as sports.
Itcan be related with administrative duties in employment position where theteachers with higher position are having more income compared to teachers with lowerposition and the chance in accessing to any facilities in order to engage inleisure activities also differ. Previous study in Malaysia by Cheah & Poh(2014) revealed that minor ethnic are more likely to engage and practicephysically active lifestyle compared to major ethnic but there are unclearreasons about the situation so other researcher can study about the associationbetween ethnicity and leisure engagement either in physical, social orcognitive leisure activities. Ferguson, Frost, & Hall (2012) stated intheir study that elementary to high school age teachers who exposed with highwork strain, student misbehaviour, and low quality of employment conditions canlead to depressive and anxious symptoms among teachers where according toToyoshima, Kaneko, & Motohashi (2016), increasing job pressure can affectleisure time physical activities so school teachers will have restriction toengage in leisure activities due to high work strain and lack of time. 2.4 Sleep quality affected by work stressamong teachers and it’s relation with leisure activitiesAccording to Desouky & Allam (2017),occupational stress among teachers can be defines as response when facing workload that not matches to their resources, abilities, knowledge, and needs tomanage the stress. Being a teacher can be physically and mentally challengedsince teaching is an occupation that consumes a lot of energy in everyday workin the classroom.
In addition, teachers also have their personal and familialcommitments that can lead them to stress. Work loads among teachers mostlyoccur when they manage activities, develop time-tables, plan lessons, developcurriculums, give information, examine and evaluate students’ performance,conducts extra-curricular activities, monitors classes, supervise disciplineproblems in school especially for discipline teachers, retained records, andmotivate students by words and actions. Work environment in school was found tohave significant correlation with stress levels among teachers (Desouky , 2017). According to Simone, Cicotto & Lampis (2016), sources ofstress among teachers include less support by management, workload, overloadrole, rising number of students and also poor discipline. A study reported thatstress among individuals can lead to many sleep difficulties such as mid-sleepawakening, wake up too early in the morning and restless sleep (Almojali,Almalki, Alothman, Masuadi & Alaqeel, 2017). Johnson et al. (2016) statedthat there is strong and constant relationship between psychosocial stress andlife stress with insomnia in healthy adults where the stress become a startingpoint for an individual to have poor sleep quality.
Sleep disturbances canoccur through psychological and physiological mechanism due to acute andchronic stressors. Study from Alcántara et al. (2017) highlighted that onlychronic, moderate or severe stress maintained to be significantly associatedwith symptoms of insomnia compare to socio-demographics, medical conditions,and health behaviours.
Snoring can be categorized as a health problem thataffects both men and women and it is a crucial marker of obstructive sleepapnea (OSA). Individuals with OSA will experience repetitive apneas anddesaturations during sleep. If left untreated, it can impair the quality oflife of an individual. The authors conclude that less engagement in physicalactivity is one of the risk factor for habituating snoring complaint, weightgain, and alcohol dependent.Physical activity is a good leisure toparticipate because it can promote good sleep quality among adults (Youngstedt& Kline, 2006). People who are engage in physical leisure activity tend tohave good sleep and can concentrate on daily tasks and not easily sleepy duringthe day (Loprinzi and Cardinal, 2011).
Wang, Sun & Zang (2014) haveconducted a study and they highlighted that by listening to the music, it thatcan promote better sleep quality. Leisure questionnaire shows that listening tomany kind of music is one of the leisure activities that can be engaged byindividuals. According to Ruiz-Contreras et al., (2012), physical activity isone of the leisure types that composed of few activities such as jogging,cycling, gardening, hiking, dancing, and swimming. However, the exactinformation about the intensity, duration, or type of physical activity is notprovided so that activity recommendations cannot be specified.
Social leisureactivities such as visiting friends, volunteering activity and having supportgroups can improve person’s sleep quality. Having positive support from otherpeople or the closest person can enhance better sleep quality while people withdeclining social relationship has poor sleep quality (Stafford, Bendayan,Tymoszuk & Kuh, 2017).