AIDSstands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ,it is a wide range of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-human immunodeficiency virus).
initiallya person may not observe any symptoms but may experience a short period ofinfluenza or flu like illness. HIV is mainly spread by unprotected sex,contaminated blood transfusions, from affected mother to child during pregnancy.But at the same time, it should be noted that some bodily fluids like saliva,tears & sweat or even urine does not spread HIV/AIDS.HIV attacks our immunesystem by destroying certain type of cells called T-helper cells (which play avital role in providing immunity to our body) and makes copies of thevirus inside these cells.
It ultimately breaks down one’s immune system, itmeans that a person having AIDS may find it harder and harder to fight with thepathogens (or disease-causing organisms) or diseases.The symptoms of earlyHIV infection are:fever, chills, joint pain, muscle aches,sore throat, sweats (particularly at night), enlarged glands, a red rash, tiredness,weakness, unintentional weight loss.But in many cases, the initial symptomsmay disappear and may not show up for many years. During this time the virusreplicates and destroys one’s immune system on an average this process takes 10years. Meanwhile the infected person seems to be normal, and healthy and oftenwith no symptoms.
If left untreated, HIV reduce theability to fight infection. The person becomes prone to serious infections. This stage of infection is known as AIDSSymptomsof late-stage HIV infection may include: blurred vision,diarrhea, which is usuallypersistent or chronic, dry cough, fever of above 100 °F (37 °C) lasting forweeks, night sweats, permanent tiredness, shortness of breath (dyspnoea),swollenglands lasting for weeks, unintentional weight loss, white spots on the tongueor mouth. During late-stage HIV infection, the risk of developing alife-threatening illness is much greater. Life-threatening illnesses may becontrolled, avoided, and/or treated with proper medications, often includingHIV treatment.But on the other hand,There are manymisconceptions about HIV and AIDS.
The virus CANNOT be transmitted from: shaking hands, hugging, casual kissing, sneezing, touching unbroken skin,using the same toilet, sharing towels, sharing cutlery, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation,or other forms of “casual contact”.Diagnosisis made through a blood test that screens specifically for the virus. If theHIV virus has been found, the test result is “positive.” Theblood is re-tested several times before a positive result is given to thepatient.If aperson has been exposed to the virus, it is crucial that they get tested assoon as possible. If detected, the more likely the treatment will besuccessful.
A home testing kit can be used as well. There is currently no curefor HIV or AIDS. Treatments can slow the course of the condition – and allowmost infected people the opportunity to live a long and relatively healthylife.EarlierHIV antiretroviral treatment is crucial – it improves quality of life,extends life expectancy, and reduces the risk of transmission, according to theWorld Health Organization’s guidelines issued in June 2013.
Currently,there is no vaccine or cure for HIV, but treatments have evolved which are muchmore effective and better tolerated – they can improve patients’ general healthand quality of life considerably, in as little as one pill per day. MALARIAMalaria is a mosquito-borneinfectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death. Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteendays after being bitten. If not properly treated, people may haverecurrences of the disease months later.
In those who have recently survivedan infection, reinfectionusually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappearsover months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria. Thedisease is most commonly transmitted by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The mosquito biteintroduces the parasites from the mosquito’s saliva into a person’s blood. Theparasites travel to the liver where they mature and reproduce. Five species of Plasmodium caninfect and be spread by humans. The risk of diseasecan be reduced by preventing mosquito bites through the use of mosquitonets and insectrepellents, or with mosquitocontrol measures suchas spraying insecticides and draining standingwater. CAUSESIt is caused by AidesMosquito(Female) .
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicid. Females of most speciesare ectoparasites, whose tube-like mouthparts (called a proboscis) pierce the hosts’ skin to consume blood. The word “mosquito” is Spanish for “little fly”.TREATMENTSeveral medications are available to prevent malaria in travellers to areas where thedisease is common. Occasional doses of the combination medication sulfoxide/pyrimethamine are recommended in infants and after the firsttrimester of pregnancy in areas with high rates of malaria.