stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ,it is a wide range of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-human immunodeficiency virus).initially
a person may not observe any symptoms but may experience a short period of
influenza or flu like illness. HIV is mainly spread by unprotected sex,
contaminated blood transfusions, from affected mother to child during pregnancy.
But at the same time, it should be noted that some bodily fluids like saliva,
tears & sweat or even urine does not spread HIV/AIDS.HIV attacks our immune
system by destroying certain type of cells called T-helper cells (which play a
vital role in providing immunity to our body)
and makes copies of the
virus inside these cells. It ultimately breaks down one’s immune system, it
means that a person having AIDS may find it harder and harder to fight with the
pathogens (or disease-causing organisms) or diseases.
The symptoms of early
HIV infection are:
fever, chills, joint pain, muscle aches,
sore throat, sweats (particularly at night), enlarged glands, a red rash, tiredness,
weakness, unintentional weight loss.
But in many cases, the initial symptoms
may disappear and may not show up for many years. During this time the virus
replicates and destroys one’s immune system on an average this process takes 10
years. Meanwhile the infected person seems to be normal, and healthy and often
with no symptoms. If left untreated, HIV reduce the
ability to fight infection. The person becomes prone to serious infections. This stage of infection is known as AIDS
of late-stage HIV infection may include: blurred vision,diarrhea, which is usually
persistent or chronic, dry cough, fever of above 100 °F (37 °C) lasting for
weeks, night sweats, permanent tiredness, shortness of breath (dyspnoea),swollen
glands lasting for weeks, unintentional weight loss, white spots on the tongue
or mouth. During late-stage HIV infection, the risk of developing a
life-threatening illness is much greater. Life-threatening illnesses may be
controlled, avoided, and/or treated with proper medications, often including
But on the other hand,
There are many
misconceptions about HIV and AIDS. The virus CANNOT be transmitted from: shaking hands, hugging, casual kissing, sneezing, touching unbroken skin,
using the same toilet, sharing towels, sharing cutlery, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation,
or other forms of “casual contact”.
is made through a blood test that screens specifically for the virus. If the
HIV virus has been found, the test result is “positive.” The
blood is re-tested several times before a positive result is given to the
person has been exposed to the virus, it is crucial that they get tested as
soon as possible. If detected, the more likely the treatment will be
successful. A home testing kit can be used as well. There is currently no cure
for HIV or AIDS. Treatments can slow the course of the condition – and allow
most infected people the opportunity to live a long and relatively healthy
HIV antiretroviral treatment is crucial – it improves quality of life,
extends life expectancy, and reduces the risk of transmission, according to the
World Health Organization’s guidelines issued in June 2013.
there is no vaccine or cure for HIV, but treatments have evolved which are much
more effective and better tolerated – they can improve patients’ general health
and quality of life considerably, in as little as one pill per day.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne
infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, tiredness, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death. Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen
days after being bitten. If not properly treated, people may have
recurrences of the disease months later. In those who have recently survived
an infection, reinfection
usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears
over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria. The
disease is most commonly transmitted by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The mosquito bite
introduces the parasites from the mosquito’s saliva into a person’s blood. The
parasites travel to the liver where they mature and reproduce. Five species of Plasmodium can
infect and be spread by humans.
The risk of disease
can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites through the use of mosquito
nets and insect
repellents, or with mosquito
control measures such
as spraying insecticides and draining standing
It is caused by Aides
Mosquito(Female) . Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicid. Females of most species
are ectoparasites, whose tube-like mouthparts (called a proboscis) pierce the hosts’ skin to consume blood. The word “mosquito”
is Spanish for “little fly”.
Several medications are available to prevent malaria in travellers to areas where the
disease is common. Occasional doses of the combination medication sulfoxide/pyrimethamine are recommended in infants and after the first
trimester of pregnancy in areas with high rates of malaria.