All and all, In July 1949 on MT that Warren Weaver was generallyconsidered the founder of MT “basedon the wartime successes in code breaking”(Hutchine, 2005,p.
1) in World War II. He brought his idea in MT to generalnotice and used his knowledge in cryptography, logic , information theory ,language universal and statistics in the resolution of ambiguity in MT whichstimulate other researcher such as Abraham Kaplan (Round) , Erwin Reifler , Victor Oswald(UCLA) to work on it. As far as MT was concernedin the study of translation, Hutchine (2003) proposed 5 periods for machinetranslation history: Between 1933 to 1956 which was the first period of MT.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), vanguard in an educationalinnovation and interdisciplinary exploration, held the first meeting in 1951and first international conference in cooperation well with American, Canadian,English and Russian experts. Yehoshua Bar Hill, Israeli philosopher andlinguist, was the first researcher in MT who came the appointment by governmentfunding in MIT and was responsible for all the activities which are mentionedabove. “On 7th January1954, at the IBM headquarters in New York, a small-scale demonstration of aRussian-English system was given-the joint effort of Peter Sheridan of IBM andPaul Garvin at Georgetown university” (Hutchine (ed.), 2000, p.
6). After thefirst successfully-tested small-scale MT system in New York, funding agenciesand general pubic all around the word were interested to be responsible in MTand on the same year Yngve was the person who received funding from theNational Science Foundation and activities in other centers such asRamo-Wooldridge, Michigan, Milan and the Cambridge Language Research Unit(CLRU) expanded. From mid-50s to mid-60s(1956-1966) was the decade of optimism at a high level. The disillusion and high expectation of MThad undoubtedly affected the ways of researches in which different approacheswere viewed, tested, hence were used in MT. Three basic approaches to MT wereproposed. The first one was dictionary-based direct translation which wereepitomized for translation from source language (SL) to target language (TL)and the second one was interlingua based on language-neutral representation andtransfer approach was the last one comprised three stages: analysis, transferand generation or synthesis and representthe two major approaches of research into MT: empirical trail- and- errorapproach and theoretical research.Expected to have fully-automatic highquality (FAHQ) set that Delavenay (1960) claimed the possibility of MT systemfor poetry translation and “the mostsignificant external event with impact on MT was the launch of the firstman-made satellite (sputnik) in October 1957, which alerted the US to thetechnical progress of the USSR, and gave added impulse to the quickening paceof MT research in both East and West” (Hutchine, 2000, p.7).