American Revolution Part 2

the second continental congress
after lexington and concord met in Philadelphia, formed an army, made George Washington commander in chief, created money called continentals, sent olive branch petition, declared independence,

george washington
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.

continental army
the American army during the American Revolution

redcoats
British soldiers who fought against the colonists in the American Revolution; so called because of their bright red uniforms.

the battle of bunker hill
The first major battle of the American Revolution took place in 1775.The British eventually won beacause the colonist ran out of bullets. Really occured at Breed’s Hill, showed the Americans were determined and would not be easily defeated

Thomas Gage
british general during the revolution

the olive branch petition
request sent to king george III to stop the fighting, the Americans hoped the British would see how determined the colonists were after Bunker Hill and would make peace with the colonists

King George III
king of england at the time of the American Revolution

Phillis Wheatley
A former slave who wrote poems and plays supporting American independence was the first African American in the colonies to be a published writer

Thomas Paine
wrote common sense

common sense
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 to convince the colonists that it was time to become independent.

Declaration of Independence
This document was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It established the 13 colonies as independent states, free from rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this document.

Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.

Abigail Adams
John Adam’s wife, she appealed to her husband to protect the rights of women. a member of the Daughters of Liberty

Articles of confederation
the first plan of government for the United States. It created a very weak national government. The states had all the power. Each state had only 1 vote. 9/13 had to pass any law, congress could not control trade, make taxes, or have an army

patriots
colonists who supported the cause of independence

loyalists
colonists who wanted to stay with Britian and not declare independence

martha washington
George Washington’s wife

Sybil Ludington
rode more than 40 miles to warn Americans of a British Attack

deborah sampson
pretended to be a man and dressed in men’s clothes so that she could fight in the American Revolition

Margaret Corbin
took her husband’s place in battle when he was wounded. she was also wounded in the battle, was the first woman veteran recognized by congress

Mercy Otis Warren
american woman who wrote poems and stories supporting the cause of independence. she later wrote the first history of the American REvolution written by a woman.

James Armistead
a slave from Virginia who was a spy for General Washington

Peter Salem
one of 5 African-Americans who fought at the battle of Concord, also fought at Bunker Hill

Hessians
mercenaries(hired soldiers) from Germany who fought for the British during the American Revolution

Battle of Long Island
an attack by british troops that caused great losses for the Americans

crossing the delaware river
in the middle of winter when most soldiers were freezing and many had abandoned the american army and gone home, Washington planned a surprise attack on the Hessians in Trenton, New Jersey. On Christmas night patriot soldiers left their camp and attacked the Hessians, after only an hour the Hessians surrendered. This kept more soldiers from abandoning the Army and gave them hope the war could be won

the battle of saratoga
really 2 battle that happened over 3 weeks, first major battle the British lost was a turning point in the war, because it finally looked like the Americans could win.

Benedict Arnold
continental army officer who later became a traitor and worked for the British during the Revolutionary War

Valley Forge
a winter camp used by the continental army during the winter of 1777, because of the Articles of Confederation congress did not have the money to send supplies for the army, conditions were very harsh, there was not enough food, clothing, and shoes

Marquis de Lafayette
a french man came to Valley Forge to help the Americans, he spent his own money to buy supplies for the American troops at valley forge the french agreed to help the colonists officially after the battle of saratoga.

Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben
german soldier who came to Valley Forge, he was a well trained soldier and helped better train the Americans

Bernardo de Galvez
governor of spanish louisiana, helped the Americans during the revolution by protecting New Orleans from the British and allowed the Americans to use the Mississippi river to ship supplies, once spain declared war on Britian, he helped capture a number of british towns

Nathan Hale
a teacher who was an American spy during the revolution, was captured and hanged by the British, said “I regret that I have but 1 life to lose for my country.”

Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley
was called Molly Pitcher because she carried fresh water to the soldiers, when her husband was injured she took his place loading the cannons

Tadeusz Kosciuszko
traveled from the country of Poland to fight with the Americans during the revolution he designed the American Fort at West Point

The Battle for Savannah
Savannah was Britian’s first target in the south. The British won the battle

Nathanael Greene
led the continental army in the south

Cowpens
in south carolina, proved the Americans could defeat the British in the South

Guilford Courthouse
the British won but were severely weakened, showed the british could not win the war because no one city or town was the heart of America

Benjamin Franklin
American patriot, writer, printer, and inventor. During the Revolutionary War he persuaded the French to help the colonists.

Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.