American Transcendentalism

Ralph Waldo Emerson
Nature & The American ScholarLed to Transcendentalist movement of the mid 19th century philosophy of transcendentalism in his 1836 essay, NatureSpeech entitled ‘The American Scholar’ in 1837 considered to be America’s ‘Intellectual Declaration of Independence’periodic gatherings of other like-minded intellectuals. this was the beginning of the transcendental club, which served as a center for the movement

Henry David Thoreau
Walden & Civil DisobedienceA leading transcendentalist best known for his book Walden,a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundingsessay ‘Resistance to Civil Government’—Civil Disobedience, an argument for disobedience to an unjust statei went to the woods because i wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if i could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when i came to die, discover that i had not livedinfluenced Ghandi/King

Amos Bronson Alcott
Conversations with Children On the Gospels & Ralph Waldo Emerson, Philosopher and seer: an estimate of his character and genius in prose and versePioneered new ways of interacting with young students, focusing on a conversational style, and avoided traditional punishment founded Fruitlands, a transcendentalist experiment in community livingadvocated a vegan diet before the term was coined.

he was aso an abolitionist and an advocate for women’s rightsfounded the concord school of philosophy

John Greenleaf Whittier
Snowbound & Barbara FrietchieInfluential American Quaker Poet and Ardent advocate of the abolition of slavery in the USfounding member of the American Anti-Slavery Society-signed the anti-slavery declaration of 1833, which he often considered the most significant action of his lifesaid things through his writings that common men were afraid to say

Walt Whitman
Leaves of Grass & Drum TapsAmong the most influential poets in the american canon, often called the father of free versehis work was very controversial in its timevolunteer nurse during the american civil warleaves of grass strongest praise from ralph waldo emerson, who wrote a flattering five-page letter to whitman and spoke highly of the book to friends

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Paul Revere’s Ride & Evangelinespent several years translating dante alighieri’s divine comedy his poetry imparts cultural and moral values, particularly focused on promoting life as being more than material pursuits called for the development of high quality american literature his works helped shape the american character and its legacy

Nathaniel Hawthorne
The Scarlet Letter & The Blithedale Romancehis ancestors include john hathorne, the only judge involved in the salem witch trials who never repented of his actions. Nathaniel later added a ‘W’ to make his name “Hawthorne” in order to hide this relation much of Hawthorne’s writing centers on New England, many works featuring moral allegories with a puritan inspiration his fiction works are considered part of the romantic movement and, more specifically, dark romanticism–tales that suggest that guilt, sin, and evil are the most inherent natural qualities of humanityhis later writings also reflect his negative view of the transcendentalist movement

Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Rime of the Ancient Mariner & Kubla Khan English poet, literary critic and philosopherfounder of the romantic movement in england and a member of the lake poetsmajor influence on emerson and american transcendentalism focus on nature and unity of emotion

Edgar Allen Poe
Never Bet The Devil Your Head & The RavenAmerican author, poet, editor, and literary critic, considered part of the american romantic movementone of the earliest american practitioners of the short story, generally considered the inventor of the detective fiction genreas a literary critic his favorite target was longfellow many of his works are generally considered part of the dark romanticism genre, a literary reaction to transcendentalism which poe strongly dislike he referred to followers of the latter movement as ‘frog-pondians’, after the pond on boston common

Louisa May Alcott
Little Women Little Men raised by her transcendentalist parents, in New England grew up among many of the well-known intellectuals of the day such as ralph waldo emerson, nathaniel hawthorne, and henry david thoreaumajor novel set in the alcott family home, orchard house, in concord, MA and is loosely based on Alcott’s childhood experiences with her three sistersserved as a civil war nurse in the union hospital at georgetown, for six weeks in 1862-1863. her letters home–revised and published in the commonwealth as collected hospital sketches

Herman Melville
Moby Dick & Typeeexplored literature and philosophy, and the contradictions of american society in a period of rapid changehe established a profound but short-lived friendship with nathaniel hawthornei had a difficult literary life in that my books and poetry were not well received by the public during my lifetime

Emily Dickinson
Because I could not stop for death & Hope is the thing with feathers American poet born in Amherst, MA she lived a mostly introverted and reclusive lifeshe had a fascination with death, immortality and emotions-used as themes in her poetrymost of her poetry was not published during her lifetime-later published with heavy editing

William Ellery Channing
Baltimore Serman & Likeness to God Channing’s religion and thought were among the chief influenced on the new england transcendentalistshe never subscribed to their views. which he saw as extreme

Margaret Fuller
Woman in the 19th century & Summer on the LakesFirst editor of the transcendentalist journal – the dialfuller had earned a reputation as a best-read person in new england advocate of women’s rights and education and the right to employment first major feminist

William Wordsworth
Lyrical Ballads & The PreludeMajor english romantic poet who , helped to launch the romantic age in english literatureproduced lyrical ballads-an important work in the english romantic movement known for his ideas regarding the relation between the human mind and nature

Frederic Henry Hedge
A mighty fortress is our God & Coleridge’s literary characternew england unitarian minister founder of the transcendental club or hedges club significant as a foremost translator of german literature into english for academic scholarshiptranslated martin luther’s ‘a mighty fortress is our God’ from german into english

George Ripley
The New American Cyclopaedia & An Influential Critical Review of origin of the speciesAmerican social reformer and unitarian minister transcendental journalist and influential criticfounded brook farm–a failed attempt at forming a utopian community managing editor of the dial

Orestos Brownson
The Laboring Classes & Charles Elwood; or, the infidel convertedNew England intellectual and preacherfounded his own church in 1836– the society for christian union and progress founded his own magazine–the boston quarterly revieweventually renounces transcendentalism and converts to roman catholicism

James Freeman Clark
Ten Great Religions & Events and Epochs in religious history unitarian minister and abolitionistestablished his own church of the disciples in Bostonsecretary of the unitarian association and a prof. of natural religion and christian doctrine at harvardpurchased brook farm from george ripley in order to begin a utopian community started the western messenger along with the ephraim peabody in 1836 as a unitarian minister

Elizabeth Peabody
Lotus Sutra, a french language version of a buddhist poem translated into english and the moral culture of infancy and kindergarten guideAmerican educator who opened the first english kindergarten in US translator of first english version of a buddhist scripture opened west street bookstore in bostonmargaret fuller’s influential conversations were held in peabody’s bookstore business manager of the main transcendentalist publication the dial buried in sleepy hollow cemetery