An Introduction to Poetry 13th Edition Vocabulary Chapters 1-3

Verse
Any single line of poetry or any composition written in separate lines of more or less regular rhythm, in contrast to prose.

Paraphrase
The restatement in one’s own words of what one understands a poem to say or suggest.

Summary
A brief condensation of the main idea or plot of a work.

Subject
The main topic of a work, whatever the work is about.

Theme
A generally recurring subject or idea noticeably evident in a literary work.

Lyric Poem
A short poem expressing the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker, often written in first person.

Narrative Poem
A poem that tells a story, Ballads and Epics

Dramatic Monologue
A poem written as a speech made by a character at some decisive moment.

Didactic Poem
A poem intended to teach a moral lesson or impart a body of knowledge.

Tone
The mood or manner of expression in a literary work, which conveys an attitude toward the work’s subject.

Satiric Poetry
Poetry that blends criticism with humor to convey a message, usually through the use of irony.

Persona
A fictitious character created by an author to be the speaker of a literary work. Latin for mask.

Irony
In language, a discrepancy between what is said and what is meant.

Verbal Irony
A mode of expression in which the speaker or writer says the opposite of what is really meant.

Sarcasm
A style of bitter irony intended to hurt or mock its target.

Dramatic Irony
A situation in which the larger implications of character’s words, actions, or situation are unrealized by that character but seen by the author and the reader of the audience.

Cosmic Irony
The contrast between a character’s position or aspiration and the treatment he or she receives at the hands of seemingly hostile fate, also called irony of fate.

Diction
Word choice or vocabulary.

Concrete Diction
Words that specifically name or describe things or persons.

Abstract Diction
Words that express general ideas or concepts.

Poetic Diction
Any language deemed suitable for verse or elevated language intended for poetry rather than common use.

Allusion
A brief reference in a text to a person.

Vulgate
The lowest level of diction, the language of the common people.

Colloquial English
The casual or informal but correct language of ordinary native speakers.

General English
The ordinary speech of educated native speakers.

Formal English
The heightened, impersonal language of educated persons, usually only written.

Dialect
A particularly variety of language spoken by an identifiable regional group or social class of persons.

Denotation
The literal, dictionary meaning of a word.

Connotation
An association or additional meaning that a word, image, or phrase may carry, apart from its literal denotation.

Image
A word or series of words that refers to any sensory experience.

Imagery
The collective set of images in a poem or other literary work.

Haiku
A Japanese verse form that has three unrhymed lines of five, seven and five syllables.

Simile
A comparison of two things, indicated by some connective, usually like, as, or than.

Metaphor
A statement that one thing is something else, which, in a literal sense, it is not.

Implied metaphor
A metaphor that uses neither connectives nor the verb to be.

Mixed metaphor
The combining of two or more incompatible metaphors, resulting in ridiculousness.

Personification
The endowing of a thing, an animal, or an abstract term with human characteristics.

Apostrophe
A direct address to someone or something.

Overstatement
Also called a hyperbole.

Understatement
An ironic figure of speech that deliberately describes something in a way that is less than the case.