Angenlina Weld Grimke

Life and Career
“Angelina Weld Grimké was named for her white great aunt, Angelina Grimké Weld”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“left South Carolina in the early nineteenth century to avoid participating directly in the ownership of slaves”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“Angelina Grimké eventually married the abolitionist Theodore Weld”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“Angelina was born on February 27, 1880, in Boston”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“Angelina’s great affection for her father, he seems to have been the source of some restriction and oppression in her own sexual self-consciousness as a lesbian.”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“Grimké was educated at Fairmont Grammar School in Hyde Park (1887-1894), Carleton Academy in Northfield, Minnesota (1895), Cushing Academy in Ashburnham, Massachusetts, and Girls’ Latin School in Boston, and in 1902 she took a degree in physical education at the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics (now Wellesley College).”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“That same year she began her teaching career as a gym teacher at Armstrong Manual Training School in Washington, D.C.”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“Perhaps as a closeted lesbian she found physical education attractive because it provided sublimated contact with women.” http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“Grimké retired from teaching and moved to New York City in 1926”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“she died on June 10, 1958”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“she published some of her poetry, fiction, and nonfiction (reviews and biographical sketches)”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“The drama Rachel is her only published book prior to this volume”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“The African-American distinctiveness of her work is most visible in content and plot rather than in style”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“Much of her work has been rigorously ignored.”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“Most of the poems were too lesbian and too sentimental for audiences during and after the Harlem Renaissance.”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“Her fiction, on the other hand, was too stark in its unflinching descriptions of the violence of lynching.”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“Indeed, the directness of her scenes of violence were unknown in African-American fictional literature prior to the work of Richard Wright.”
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm

Life and Career
“Miss Grimke began writing while still quite young, and her first published poetry preceded the Harlem Renaissance by thirty years.”
http://029c28c.netsolhost.com/blkren/bios/grimkeaw.html

Life and Career
“her best known and most mature work was written and published throughout the 1920’s”

Life and Career
“She submitted short stories, poems and essays to the Black journals and was published in The Crisis, in Opportunity”
http://029c28c.netsolhost.com/blkren/bios/grimkeaw.html

Life and Career
“The variety in form and focus of Angelina Grimke’s work is notable.”
http://029c28c.netsolhost.com/blkren/bios/grimkeaw.html

Life and Career
“She wrote 173 poems of which 31 were published.”
http://029c28c.netsolhost.com/blkren/bios/grimkeaw.html

Life and Career
“Among them were love poems, elegies, poems concerned with racial injustice and black pride, nature poems and poems with the universal themes of life and death.”
http://029c28c.netsolhost.com/blkren/bios/grimkeaw.html

Life and Career
“The mood of much of her poetry is sad and hushed”
http://029c28c.netsolhost.com/blkren/bios/grimkeaw.html

Life and Career
“Three of the best examples of her poetic sensibility are “The Eyes of My Regret,” “At April,” and “Trees”. ”
http://029c28c.netsolhost.com/blkren/bios/grimkeaw.html

Life and Career
“Angelina Grimke wrote short stories, essays and plays.”
http://029c28c.netsolhost.com/blkren/bios/grimkeaw.html

Life and Career
“it is instructive to note that very little of her work was published.”
http://029c28c.netsolhost.com/blkren/bios/grimkeaw.html

Life and Career
“In 1930, after her father died, Angelina Grimke moved to New York and published nothing more”
http://029c28c.netsolhost.com/blkren/bios/grimkeaw.html

Life and Career
“Much of her poetry shows signs of despair, rejection, and thoughts of death and also alludes to her lesbian identity.”
http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/grimkeAngelina.php

Life and Career
“She did, however, express her true emotions at times throughout her life, such as in a letter written to one of her friends at age sixteen”
http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/grimkeAngelina.php

Life and Career
“Her most famous work was a play, Rachel, which she wrote in response to W. E. B. DuBois’s requests for Black theater by, for, and about Black people”
http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/grimkeAngelina.php

Life and Career
“Grimké also wrote several short stories, such as “The Closing Door. ” ”
http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/grimkeAngelina.php

“This story reflects the feelings of loneliness and isolation she felt after her mother left her.”
http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/grimkeAngelina.php

“She writes of Grimké in her book Color, Sex and Poetry,”
http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/grimkeAngelina.php

“being a black lesbian poet in America at the beginning of the twentieth century meant that one wrote (or half wrote)– in isolation. . . . It meant that when one did write to be published, she did so in shackles– chained between the real experience and convention that would not give her voice. “”
http://voices.cla.umn.edu/artistpages/grimkeAngelina.php

“concerns a young woman who is so horrified by racism that she vows never to bring children into the world”
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/246204/Angelina-Weld-Grimke

“Not only was it difficult for an African American woman to be published,”
http://queerhistory.blogspot.com/2011/02/angelina-weld-grimke-1880-1958-african.html

“but the fact that she was an African American lesbian woman at a time when such sexuality was not spoken of or in any way acceptable made it that much more difficult with regard to publication.”
http://queerhistory.blogspot.com/2011/02/angelina-weld-grimke-1880-1958-african.html

“president, Women’s Suffrage Association of Massachusetts, beginning in 1885”
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special writer for Boston-area newspapers and magazines
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American consul to Santo Domingo (now the Dominican Republic), 1894-98

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writer, lecturer, and president of the American Negro Academy, 1904-19

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president, Washington chapter of the NAACP, 1914-25. Author of biographies of William Lloyd Garrison, 1891

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also author of numerous essays and speeches, including “The Ballotless Victim of One-Party Government,”

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In 1902, Grimké began teaching English at the Armstrong Manual Training School. In

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1916 she moved to a teaching position at the Dunbar High School, renowned for its academic excellence, where one of her pupils was the future poet/playwright May Miller.

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She frequently took classes at Harvard University during the summers

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Some critics place her in the period before the Renaissance.

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During that time, she counted the poet Georgia Douglas Johnson as one of her friends.

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She wrote the three-act drama for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

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rally public opinion against the recently released film, The Birth of a Nation (1915).

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it glorified the Ku Klux Klan and portrayed a racist view of blacks and of their role in the American Civil War and Reconstruction in the South.

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Produced in 1916 in Washington, D.C., Rachel was performed by an all-black cast. It was published in 1920

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Modern literary critics have revealed that Grimke was lesbian.

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A lynching is the spectre of the play; it authenticates the African-American experience

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Some critics believe this is expressed in her published poetry in a subtle way, but it was revealed after her death by scholars’ study of her diaries and more explicit unpublished works

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Grimké expressed the frustration that her lesbianism created

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thwarted longing is a theme in several poems

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Some of her unpublished poems are more explicitly lesbian, implying that she lived a life of suppression, “both personal and creative.”[

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The themes of motherhood and the innocence of children are integral aspects of Grimké’s work

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Rachel develops as she changes her perceptions of what the role of a mother might be, based on her sense of the importance of a naiveté towards the terrible truths of the world her

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an enslaved woman of mixed race,
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she was one of the first African-American women to have a play performed

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When she suffered significant back injuries in a 1911 train crash, Grimké was further pushed into a sense of isolation
http://blackhistorynow.com/angelina-weld-grimke-2/

Always sheltered, her new physical handicap led her to spend increasing amounts of time at her writing desk, rather than risk the strain of leaving the house or entering the classroom.
http://blackhistorynow.com/angelina-weld-grimke-2/

Notwithstanding Grimké’s commitment to her poetry
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Grimké, who never married or even engaged in public liaisons of any kind
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was churning out representations of her own highly personal sense of persecution.
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she retired from teaching in 1926
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Grimké’s talents were much admired by the lauded poets and writers
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Grimké left voluminous personal papers and unpublished works behind
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including a play entitled Mara and a collection of poems called Dusk Dreams.
http://blackhistorynow.com/angelina-weld-grimke-2/

The poems are such detailed works of love and passion that literary historians believe she was afraid to publish for fear of the scandal that might be cast on her family
http://blackhistorynow.com/angelina-weld-grimke-2/

Decades after her death and loss of public awareness, Grimké’s works returned to popularity.
http://blackhistorynow.com/angelina-weld-grimke-2/

Despite her timid persona, she is now remembered as a lyrical and fearless chronicler of the personal and political dilemmas of her era.
http://blackhistorynow.com/angelina-weld-grimke-2/

Grimké’s projected volume thus moves from inner death to outer death
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/grimke/herron.htm