Answer each of the following Core Objective Questions in paragraph form, 2-3 paragraphs each.
Use details from the readings. Remember that good information to discuss each question may come from sections other than the one each question precedes.P. 347: Core Objectives #3: Distinguish among the major groups within southern white society and explain why each group was committed to the continuation and expansion of slavery. White society was split between the higher class of planters and all of the rest. This included the plantation mistress, overseer, plain white, and poor white. While they all had different social and economic backgrounds they were all wanted the expansion of slavery. The planter elite made up about 4% of the southern white society, and they had a unequal large political and social power.
They usually owned more than 20 slaves. Overseeing the slaves and home was the plantation mistress. Although the mistress of the plantation had slaves to wait on her and attend to her needs, she looked after the houses in the same way as the planter took care of the cotton business,getting food prepared and giving medicine to the sick. She also was in charge of the house cleaning and care of the sick, and many other details, including the birthing of babies. Other than the plantation mistress and planters, the whites who worked on large plantations were mainly the overseers. They looked after slaves and made sure they worked hard and efficiently. The majority of overseers came from the middle class of white farmers or skilled elite, or were sometimes planter’s sons.
Other than the planters there were not a lot of whites who owned slaves. A majority of whites were “plain white folk”. These people were often didn’t have a good education and couldn’t read.. They were also very independent and did not like the government. However, the majority of them sided with Andrew Jackson’s democratic party. They lived in small cabins, and were simple farmers who raised crops like: corn, cotton, hogs, and chickens.
The poor whites were poor people given the least desirable land, living on the fringes of polite society. They were often day laborers or squatters who owned neither land nor slaves. Despite the majority of whites not owning slaves this they still liked the idea of slavery. This was because they feared the competition of working tif slaves were freed and they enjoyed the privileged status that race based slavery gave them. The planter elite, plantation mistress and overseer were committed to the continuation of slavery because it provide a workforce and income for themselves and their family. #5: Analyze how enslaved peoples responded to the inhumanity of their situation. At first, slaves were indentured servants that were originally supposed to have had the power to eventually become free. This would happen after a certain number of years of working.
Slaves often had patriarchal families where the father was the head of the household. Children usually had some independence from white influence. At the of age of five or six, children started to work such as collecting firewood, pick cotton, and scare away crows. Usually by the age of 10, children started working as full time field hands and started taking the full time work of slave. The buying and selling of slaves meant that children were often split from their parents and sold to new masters.
In Missouri, a woman saw six of her seven children sold away by the plantation owner, and she never saw them again. This showed the devastation slavery had on people. Slaves often responded to this with deep hate and resentment. This was one of the causes for a revolution.
Ripping slave families apart could result in the slave putting in less work, not caring as much, and could even lead to the slave trying to runaway. Whites in the south feared slave uprisings more than anything. A Virginian explained, a slave revolt should “deluge southern country with blood.” Any sign of resistance or rebellion therefore risked a bad response. Two of Thomas Jefferson’s sons tied down a seventeen year old slave who had run away several times, and they killed him with an axe. The firepower and and authority of whites made resistance by slaves very risky and challenging. It was hard for slaves to live a country that was built on freedom and the beliefs of equality for all men. This made them mad, because it wasn’t true.
They weren’t treated equal. Slaves often took this as being offensive. This resulted in many slave uprisings. In1800, a slave named Gabriel Prosser, who worked as blacksmith on a plantation near Richmond Virginia, hatched a revolt involving perhaps a thousand other slaves.
His plan was to seize key parts in the city, capture the governor, James Monroe, and overthrow the white supremes. Gabriel expected the “poor white people” to join their effort. However, someone told the whites what was happening. Gabriel and 26 of his “soldiers” were captured, tried, and hanged. Before his execution, Gabriel explained that he was only trying to be like George Washington: “I have ventured my life in endeavoring to obtain the liberty of my countrymen.” A white Virginian who observed the hangings noted that the rebels on the gallows displayed a “sense of their natural rights, and a contempt for danger.” This is how slaves reacted to the wrongness of their situation. p.
375: Core Objectives #1: Describe the major changes in the practice of religion in America in the early nineteenth century, and analyze their impact.The idea in the early eighteenth century was that God decides what happens to you and your actions don’t impact your afterlife. It was known as predestination. Thomas Jefferson and Ben Franklin were apart of these beliefs in Deism. In the late eighteenth century the groups of Universalists and Unitarians challenged the idea of predestination.
They were from New England. Unitarians believed Jesus was a saintly man but was not divine. Universalists believed salvation was available to everyone.
These two parallel religions believed that human deeds are able to make decisions for themselves and that good actions could receive salvation. These beliefs from preachers drew in many interests from Protestants. This was known as the Second Great Awakening. The idea of free will leading to salvation was preached throughout frontier revivals. Frontier Revivals took place in frontier churches in the west. These Frontier Revivals were dominated by Baptists and Methodists in the early nineteenth century.
Baptists believed that every story from the Bible was true. They also believed in social equality for all. The Methodists believe in similar ideas as the Baptists.
They developed the idea of a “circuit rider.” The job of circuit riders were to travel to remote frontier settlements and try to convert people. These two religions attracted two groups: African Americans and Women. An African American named Richard Allen said in 1787, “there was no religious sect or denomination that would suit the capacity of the colored people as well as the Methodist.” The Methodists recruited blacks. There were also religious leadership roles for women.
These religious opportunities had a huge impact on traditional roles. It reinforced women’s self confidence as well as expanded horizon. The new changes in religions had huge impacts. The energies of the revivals spread more of a democratic faith among people on the frontier. #4: Analyze the impact on American society and politics of the emergence of the anti-slavery movement?The first emancipation movement appeared in 1816 with the formation of American Colonization Society, whose mission was to return freed slaves back to Africa, their original home. Its supporters were important figures such as James Monroe, James Madison, Henry Clay, John Marshall, and Daniel Webster. Some saw it as a way of getting rid of the free blacks that could potentially hurt them.
15,000 blacks were returned to Liberia and other African Giant. Abolitionism emerged in the 1830s, demanding an immediate end to slavery. Blacks in Boston and whites in the anti-slavery movement adopted an aggressive new strategy. Its initial efforts to promote a gradual end to slavery was to not allow it in the western territories and encouraging owners to free their slaves.
This gave way to demands for immediate abolition everywhere. A white Massachusetts activist named William Lloyd Garrison explained the change in outlook. Some abolitionists went even further, calling for full social and political equality among the races, although they disagreed over the ways they could do it. Abolitionist efforts in the North stirred up a strong reaction among southern whites, causing fears for their safety and resentment of interference. Although many northerners shared the belief in the racial inferiority of Africans and were hostile to the tactics and message of the abolitionists.
Free blacks in the North joined in on this movement to help enslaved blacks in the escape of Southern Slaves. This led to the formation of an underground railroad. A key person in helping with the underground railroad is Harriet Tubman.