WHAT IS POETRY?
What is the essential difference between poetry and prose?
Prose may be a a story, description of emotion, idea or presentation of a human character but poetry is an experience.
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How does poetry “say more and say it more intensely than ordinary language” ?
It is concerned with experience rather than information. It allows us to live more deeply and fully with greater awareness.
Show how a poem is “central to existence.”
We are better off for having poetry because without it we are spiritually impoverished and unfulfilled.
What are two limiting approaches to reading poetry?
-Looking for a lesson or moral
-Expecting to always find poetry to be beautiful
What are the four dimensions of poetry?
Intellectual, Sensuous, Emotional, Imaginative
What is meant by reading a poem affectionately not affectedly?
Read a poem with the emotion it contains not with too little or too much emotion.
Show how a line is a rhythmical unit
Contains a certain number of feet.
Show the role of punctuation in a poem
Why is paraphrasing a poem important?
It reveals the barest, most inadequate approximation of what the poem really says. It then reveals how far short of the actual poem it falls. ( makes the theme more accessible)
What is the difference between the prose meaning and the total meaning of a poem?
The prose meaning is the barest most inadequate approximation of what the poem says. The poetry meaning is the entire experience.
What are two of the most important questions to ask to aid in the understanding of the poem? (think Prufrock…)
-who is the narrator?
-what is the occasion?
DENOTATION AND CONOTATION
Explain the three parts of a word and how they contribute to a poem
Sound, denotation and connotation
what are the different levels of diction?
grandiose, humble, fanciful, matter-of-fact, romantic or realistic, archaic or modern, technical or everyday, monosyllabic or polysyllabic
choose most meaningful word
Show how a poet gets the most out of every word
They use as much of a word as possible
How does the ambiguity of language actually aid a poem?
Multiple meanings of a poem can enrich the experience through multiple denotations and with that many connotations
Discuss the various types of imagery
visual, auditory, gustatory, tactile, organic, kinestetic
Distinguish between image-bearing and nonimage-bearing words
image bearing= concrete words
non-image bearing= abstract words
comparing two things using like or as
a detailed comparison in the form of a simile that is many lines in length.
a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.
– literal and figurative term named
-literal named, figurative implied
-literal implied, figurative named
– both implied
the attribution of a personal nature or human characteristics to something nonhuman, or the representation of an abstract quality in human form.
a figure of speech in which the poet addresses an absent person, an abstract idea, or a thing.
a fanciful expression in writing or speech; an elaborate extended metaphor.
using something closely related to refer to that something
a figure of speech in which a part is made to represent the whole or vice versa
a word formulated by association with its sound
something that means more than it is
a story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one.
the expression of one’s meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect.
a seemingly absurd or self-contradictory statement or proposition that when investigated or explained may prove to be well founded or true.
the presentation of something as being smaller, worse, or less important than it actually is.
An extended metaphor, also known as a conceit or sustained metaphor, is when an author exploits a single metaphor or analogy at length through multiple linked vehicles, tenors, and grounds throughout a poem or story
Explain the caveats for apostrophe and personification
Ask about this?
What are dead metaphors?
Discuss all that figurative language does for a poem
-affords imaginative pleasure
– figures of speech are a way of bringing additional imagery into verse, of making the abstract concrete, of making poetry more sensuous.
– a way of adding emotional intensity to
otherwise merely informative statements
– a way of adding emotional intensity to
otherwise merely informative statements
What is the difference between a poem “allowing for” and”suggesting” an idea?
the poem allowing for an idea is a plausible explanation within the bounds of the poetry’s implication while the other is directly intended.
Is it better to under or over interpret?
What is the value of paradox?
What is the distinction between verbal irony and sarcasm?
verbal irony: saying the opposite of what you mean
sarcasm: bitter or cutting speech
How is dramatic irony more complex than verbal irony?
the discrepancy is not between what the speaker
says and what the speaker means but between what the speaker says and what the poem means
How can irony in a poem prevent sentimentality?
demand an exercise of critical intelligence
What is the power of allusion?
a means of reinforcing the emotion or the ideas of one’s
own work with the emotion or ideas of another work or occasion. Because
they may compact so much meaning in so small a space, they are
extremely useful to the poet.
MEANING AND IDEA
What is meant by poetic faith?
Good readers of poetry are receptive to all kinds of
experience with a suspension of disbelief
What determines the merit or value of a poem?
The primary value of a poem depends not so much on the truth of the idea presented as on the power with which it is communicated and on being made a convincing part of a meaningful total experience
What is meant by intellectual flexibility and why is that important for a reader of poetry?
They may not agree with a poem but they can still appreciate it, tolerance is key.
What role does tone play in a poem?
the writer’s or speaker’s
attitude toward his subject, his audience, or himself. It is the emotional coloring, or the emotional meaning, of the work
How does a poet achieve musicality in a poem?
by the choice and arrangement of sounds
by the arrangement of accents
Discuss the role that repetition and variation play
always the same yet always different. . If we get too much sameness, the result is monotony and tedium; if we get too much variety, the result is bewilderment and confusion
the quality of being pleasing to the ear, especially through a harmonious combination of words.
a harsh, discordant mixture of sounds.
repetition of initial consonant sounds
The repetition of vowel sounds
The repetition of final consonant sounds
the rime sounds involve only one syllable
rime sounds involve two or more syllables
(approximate rimes) include words with any kind of sound similarity
more riming words are within the line
RHYTHM AND METER
any wavelike recurrence of motion or
is the kind of rhythm we can tap our foot to. In metrical
language the accents are arranged to occur at apparently equal intervals of
time, and it is this interval we mark off with the tap of our foot.
What role does punctuation play in creating rhythm?
sets the beat
Prose vs Verse
language is called verse. Nonmetrical language is prose
unaccented followed by accented syllable
accented followed by unaccented
two unaccented followed by accented
accented followed by two unaccented
What are the three ways to vary meter
adding in extra syllables
unexpected introduction of word that follows same form
How and why do you scan a poem?
Scansion is at best a gross way of describing the rhythmical quality of a poem
What are rhetorical stresses?
stress required by the meaning of a line, as distinguished from that required by the meter
Review the parts of speech that generally receive more stress than others
SOUND AND MEANING
Explain the various phonetic intensives
sound connects in some way with their meaning example: flame
Show how vowels are more euphonious and consonants
vowels are musical tones while consonants are noises
Discuss liquid and plosive consonants
mellifluous sounds lmnr and soft v and f ,,,, plosives are harsher: bdgkpt
Show how a poet controls the pace and movement in a poem
What is the difference between structure and form?
form is external shape where as structure is the arrangement of ideas images thoughts sentneces
Explain the three broad kinds of form
lines follow each other without formal grouping
written in a series of stanzas that is repeated units having the same number of lines usually the same metrical pattern and often have identical rhyme scheme
A traditional pattern that applies to a whole poem.
How do structure and form contribute to meaning?
appeals to human instinct
Discuss the elements of some of the popular fixed forms
Sonnets (Shakespearean and Petrarchan)
Petrarchan: eight lines of octave abbaabba and six lines sestet cdcdcd
Shakespearean: three quatrains of four, abab cdcd efef and concludes in couplet gg
a nineteen-line poem with two rhymes throughout, consisting of five tercets and a quatrain, with the first and third lines of the opening tercet recurring alternately at the end of the other tercets and with both repeated at the close of the concluding quatrain.
a poem with six stanzas of six lines and a final triplet, all stanzas having the same six words at the line-ends in six different sequences that follow a fixed pattern, and with all six words appearing in the closing three-line envoi.
Discuss the various stanzaic forms
an arrangement of triplets, especially in iambs, that rhyme aba bcb cdc, etc., as in Dante’s Divine Comedy.
a poem or song narrating a story in short stanzas. Traditional ballads are typically of unknown authorship, having been passed on orally from one generation to the next as part of the folk culture.
What three questions do you ask to judge a poem?
1.) What is the central purpose?
2.) How fully has this purpose been accomplished?
3.)How important is the purpose?
Explain the three ways that a poem can fail to achieve excellence
failing to answer any of the questions adequately.
What is meant by how important is its purpose?