AP English Period 4 Vocabulary Words.

Open form poetry
Definition: Does not consists of poems that follow patterns of lines, meter, rhymes and stanzas

Example:
After the Sea-Ship by Walt Whitman

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After the Sea-Ship—after the whistling winds;
After the white-gray sails, taut to their spars and ropes,
Below, a myriad, myriad waves, hastening, lifting up their necks,
Tending in ceaseless flow toward the track of the ship:
Waves of the ocean, bubbling and gurgling, blithely prying,
Waves, undulating waves—liquid, uneven, emulous waves,
Toward that whirling current, laughing and buoyant, with curves,
Where the great Vessel, sailing and tacking, displaced the surface;

Free Verse
Definition: poetry that does not rhyme or have a regular meter.

Example:
Fog by Carl Sandburg

The fog comes
on little cat feet.
It sits looking
over harbor and city
on silent haunches
and then moves on.

Closed form poetry + types
Definition: (fixed form) consists of poems that follow patterns of lines, meter, rhymes and stanzas.
Types: Sonnet/Villanelle/Sestina

Example: Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer’s lease hath all too short a date.
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often in his gold complexion dimmed;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or nature’s changing course, untrimmed.
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st
Nor shall death brag thou wand’rest in his shade,
When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st
So long as men can breathe or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee

Rhyme scheme
Definition: the ordered pattern of rhymes at the ends of the lines of a poem or verse.

Example: ‘Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.
Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are!’

Meter
Definition: it is usually dependent not only on the number of syllables in a line but also on the way those syllables are accented. This rhythm is often described as a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.

Example: Iamb, trochee, anapest, dactyl, spondee & pyrrhic

Metrical foot
Definition: (prosody) a group of 2 or 3 syllables forming the basic unit of poetic rhythm.

Example: I think I shall never see.
/I think/ that I/ shall ne/ver see
Besides iambic, there are also:
trochaic: stressed plus unstressed
anapestic: two unstressed plus one stressed
dactylic: one stressed plus two unstressed

lamb
Definition: a metrical foot of two syllables, one short (or unstressed) and one long (or stressed). The lamb is the reverse of the Trochee.

Example:
•That time l of year l thou mayst l in me l behold
Shall I l com pare l thee to l a sum l mer’s day? – Shakespeare’s “Sonnet 18”

trochee
Definition: a foot consisting of one long or stressed syllable followed by one short or unstressed syllable.

Example:
•(I could) wait forever, Face a thousand lifetimes, Ponder your embraces, Just to live in your time.
Why so pale and wan, fond Lover?
Prithee why so pale?
Will, when looking well can’t move her,
Looking ill prevail?
Prithee why so pale? – Sir John Suckling’s “Song”

anapest
Definition: a metrical foot consisting of two short or unstressed syllables followed by one long or stressed syllable.

Example:
•And the sound l of a voice l that is still
The Assyrian came down like a wolf on the fold
And his cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold Lord Byron’s “The Destruction of Sennacherib”

dactyl
Definition: a metrical foot consisting of one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables or (in Greek and Latin) one long syllable followed by two short syllables.

Example:
•Cannon to right of them,
Cannon to left of them,
Cannon in front of them
Volley’d and thunder’d; – Alfred Lord Tennyson’s “The Charge of the Light Brigade”

spondee
Definition: a foot consisting of two long (or stressed) syllables.

Example:
The Song of Hiawatha

The first poem is Longfellow’s classic, ‘On the Shores of Hiawatha.’ Here is the first stanza.
‘By the shore of Gitche Gumee,
By the shining Big-Sea-Water,
At the doorway of his wigwam,
In the pleasant Summer morning,
Hiawatha stood and waited.
All the air was full of freshness,
All the earth was bright and joyous,
And before him, through the sunshine,
Westward toward the neighboring forest
Passed in golden swarms the Ahmo
Passed the bees, the honey-makers,
Burning, singing in the sunshine.’

pyrrhic
Definition: It consists of two unaccented, short syllables. It is also known as a dibrach.

Example: WHEN THE blood creeps AND THE nerves prick.

monometer
Definition: a line of verse consisting of a single metrical foot or dipody.

Example: A POETRY-footle Strand, Brian Footleon
Read more at: http://www.poetrysoup.com/poems/monometer

dimeter
Definition: gives you a number and refers to any line of poetry consisting of two (di-) metrical feet.

Example:
Up the|mountain,
Down the|valley,
Steadi|ly the
Train chugs|onward.

trimeter
Definition: a line of verse consisting of three metrical feet

Example:
Iambic trimeter (contains three iambs in each line)
I love the jocund dance,
The softly breathing song,
(I Love the Jocund Dance by William Blake)

tetrameter
Definition: a verse of four measures.

Example:
Iambic tetrameter (contains four iambs in each line)
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
(The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost)

pentameter
Definition: contains five iambs in each line

Example:
Her vestal livery is but sick and green
And none but fools do wear it; cast it off.
(Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare)

hexameter
Definition: contains six iambs in each line

Example:
He had adorned and hid the coming bulk of death…
(Adonais by Percy Bysshe Shelly)

heptameter
Definition: a line of verse consisting of seven metrical feet.

Example:
Heptameter Poem by Sara Kendrick
Out on porch to glimpse a sunrise Orange sun cast gray ‘on clouds Whispy light airy sparse white clouds On horizon not like shroud Then as the sun inched up orange Disappeared replaced by Illuminating brilliance clear Against blue blue sky Dramatic change for human eyes I longed to stay awhile How many didn’t even notice Beauty very worthwhile Iambic heptameter used as ballard stanza Used by Emily Dickinson in many of her works
Read more at: http://www.poetrysoup.com/poems/short/heptameter

octameter
Definition: a line of verse consisting of eight metrical feet

Example:
In Harmony

Peaceful harmony
enriches one’s soul,
a blessing from God
of His loving grace.
Share with each other
this love you embrace;
there’s joy in your heart,
it shines from your face.
In tranquility
lift your voice in prayer;
there is no façade,
God has set you free.
His mercy and love
He grants you and me;
never in disgrace
as we run life’s race.

stanza
Definition: a group of lines forming the basic recurring metrical unit in a poem; a verse.

Example: Five common stanzas are couplets (two lines), tercets (three lines), quatrains (four lines), sestets (six lines), and octaves (eight lines).

couplet
Definition: two lines of verse, usually in the same meter and joined by rhyme, that form a unit.

Example:
She was a little tense
The notice made no sense
I saw a little hermit crab
His coloring was oh so drab
It’s hard to see the butterfly
Because he flies across the sky

heroic couplet
Definition: (in verse) a pair of rhyming iambic pentameters, much used by Chaucer and the poets of the 17th and 18th centuries such as Alexander Pope.

Example:
Short Heroic Couplets poem by Andrew Crisci
Suppressing something beautiful is not feeling what all true hearts feel.
Read more at: http://www.poetrysoup.com/poems/short/heroic_couplets

tercet
Definition:a set or group of three lines of verse rhyming together or connected by rhyme with an adjacent tercet

Example:
From Second Satire
Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503-42)

My mother’s maids, when they did sew and spin,
They sang sometimes a song of the field mouse,
That for because their livelihood was but so thin
Would needs go seek her townish sister’s house.
She thought herself endured to much pain:
The stormy blasts her cave so sore did souse…

quatrain
Definition: a stanza of four lines, especially one having alternate rhymes

Example:
From: Hope is the Thing with Feathers, by Emily Dickinson

“Hope” is the thing with feathers
That perches in the soul
And sings the tune without the words
And never stops at all,

cinquain
Definition: (in verse) a five-line stanza.

Example:
Cinquain Pattern #1
Line1: One word
Line2: Two words
Line 3: Three words
Line 4: Four words
Line 5: One word

From bleakening hills
Look up…
Blows down the light, first breath
Of wintry wind…look up, and scent
The snow!

sestet
Definition: the last six lines of a sonnet.

Example:
Example of Septet #1:

From:
Annabel Lee, by Edgar Allan Poe

But our love it was stronger by far than the love
Of those who were older than we,
Of many far wiser than we,
And neither the angels in heaven above,
Nor the demons down under the sea,
Can ever dissever my soul from the soul
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee.

septet
Definition: A stanza comprising of seven lines.

Example: Affectionately Yours (Septet) Amorous thoughts soar through the blue, to touch a heart that is true; velvet kisses, softly set upon the lips of mine affection’s as whippoorwills sing Perfection…

Read more at: http://www.poetrysoup.com/poems/short/septet

octave
Definition: is the first part of a Petrarchan sonnet, which ends with a contrasting sestet.

Example:
From:Annabel Lee, by Edgar Allan Poe

For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And the stars never rise but I feel the bright eyes
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side
Of my darling, my darling, my life and my bride,
In the sepulcher there by the sea,
In her tomb by the sounding sea.

lyric poem
Definition: have a musical rhythm, and their topics often explore romantic feelings or other strong emotions.

Example:
William Shakespeare

Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer’s lease hath all too short a date.
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed,
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or nature’s changing course untrimmed.

sonnet
Definition: a poem of fourteen lines using any of a number of formal rhyme schemes, in English typically having ten syllables per line.

Example:
Sonnet
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
Ye ladies, walking past me piteous-eyed,
Who is the lady that lies prostrate here?
Can this be even she my heart holds dear?
Nay, if it be so, speak, and nothing hide.
Her very aspect seems itself beside,
And all her features of such altered cheer
That to my thinking they do not appear
Hers who makes others seem beatified.
‘If thou forget to know our lady thus,
Whom grief o’ercomes, we wonder in no wise,
For also the same thing befalleth us,
Yet if thou watch the movement of her eyes,
Of her thou shalt be straightaway conscious.
O weep no more; thou art all wan with sighs.
(Trans. D.G. Rossetti)

volta
Definition: is the turn of thought or argument: in Petrarchan or Italian sonnets it occurs between the octave and the sestet, and in Shakespearean or English before the final couplet.

Example:
Death of a Sonnet Writer

1. He turned the fourteenth glass and said, “Begin.”
2. and I had fourteen minutes left to live;
3. and I had fourteen unrepented sins,
4. and fourteen people whom I would forgive,
5. and fourteen unread books upon my shelf,
6. and fourteen loves I knew I’d loved in vain,
7. and fourteen dreams I’d kept within myself
8. (the fourteen I’d most wanted to explain.)
9. But fourteen minutes quickly passed away.
10. I filled my pen with fourteen drops of ink-
11. the fourteenth glass had offered one delay;
12. and fourteen final grains retained the brink.
13. This sonnet flowed like fourteen final breaths-
14. the fourteenth line, the fourteenth grain, then death.

conceit
Definition:is an extended metaphor with a complex logic that governs a poetic passage or entire poem. By juxtaposing, usurping and manipulating images and ideas in surprising ways, a conceit invites the reader into a more sophisticated understanding of an object of comparison.

Example:
Shakespeare makes use of a conceit in Act 3, Scene 5 of his play “Romeo and Juliet”. Capulet comes to Juliet’s room after Romeo has left. He finds her weeping and says:

“Thou counterfeit’st a bark, a sea, a wind;
For still thy eyes, which I may call the sea,
Do ebb and flow with tears; the bark thy body is,
Sailing in this salt flood; the winds, thy sighs;
Who, raging with thy tears, and they with them,
Without a sudden calm, will overset
Thy tempest-tossed body.”

ltalian or Petrarchan sonnet
Definition:there is a “volta” or “turn” which signals the change from the proposition to its resolution. It usually appears in the ninth line.

Example: The first is an Italian Sonnet by James DeFord, written in 1997:

Turn back the heart you’ve turned away
Give back your kissing breath
Leave not my love as you have left
The broken hearts of yesterday
But wait, be still, don’t lose this way
Affection now, for what you guess
May be something more, could be less
Accept my love, live for today.
Your roses wilted, as love spurned
Yet trust in me, my love and truth
Dwell in my heart, from which you’ve turned
My strength as great as yours aloof.
It is in fear you turn away
And miss the chance of love today!

Spenserian sonnet
Definition: a sonnet in which the lines are grouped into three interlocked quatrains and a couplet and the rhyme scheme is abab, bcbc, cdcd, ee.

Example:
Is it|her na|ture or|is it|her will, A
To be so cruel to an humbled foe? B
If nature, then she may it mend with skill, A
If will, then she at will may will forgo. B
But if her nature and her will be so, B
that she will plague the man that loves her most: C
And take delight t’increase a wretch’s woe, B
Then all her nature’s goodly gifts are lost. C
And that same glorious beauty’s idle boast, C
Is but a bait such wretches to beguile: D
As being long in her love’s tempest tossed, C
She means at last to make her piteous spoil. D
Of fairest fair let never it be named, E
That so fair beauty was so foully shamed. E
Amoretti, Sonnet No. 41

Elizabethan/ Shakespearean sonnet
Definition: a sonnet form used by Shakespeare and having the rhyme scheme abab, cdcd, efef, gg. Expand. Also called English sonnet, Elizabethan sonnet.

Example:
Sonnet 126 O thou, my lovely boy, who in thy power

O thou, my lovely boy, who in thy power
Dost hold Time’s fickle glass, his sickle, hour;
Who hast by waning grown, and therein show’st
Thy lovers withering as thy sweet self grow’st;
If Nature, sovereign mistress over wrack,
As thou goest onwards, still will pluck thee back,
She keeps thee to this purpose, that her skill
May time disgrace and wretched minutes kill.
Yet fear her, O thou minion of her pleasure!
She may detain, but not still keep, her treasure:
Her audit, though delay’d, answer’d must be,
And her quietus is to render thee.

Blank verse
Definition: is a poem with no rhyme but does have iambic pentameter. This means it consists of lines of five feet, each foot being iambic, meaning two syllables long, one stressed followed by an unstressed.

Example:
Example #1

Something there is that doesn’t love a wall.
That sends the frozen-ground-swell under it,
And spills the upper boulders in the sun;

(Mending Walls by Robert Frost)

scansion
Definition: the action of scanning a line of verse to determine its rhythm; the rhythm of a line of verse.

Example:Emily Dickinson’s Poem 254:

Hope is the thing with feathers
That perches in the soul,
And sings the tune without the words,
And never stops at all . . .

prosody
Definition: the patterns of rhythm and sound used in poetry.

Example: Byron’s “She Walks in Beauty”:

She walks in beauty like the night a
Of cloudless climes and starry skies b
And all that’s best of dark and bright a
Meet in her aspect and her eyes. b