AP Lit ; Comp Romantic Poetry

Romanticism
1780 – 1830

Elements of Romanticism 1
Natural World – divine/good

Elements of Romanticism 2
Common Man- humble life

Elements of Romanticism 3
Common Language

Elements of Romanticism 4
Self Conscious

Elements of Romanticism 5
Emotional

Elements of Romanticism 6
Intuitive

Elements of Romanticism 7
Individual

Elements of Romanticism 8
Nationalism – folklore- patriotism

Elements of Romanticism 9
Past – medieval

William Blake
1757 – 1827- Start of Romantic poetry – unknown in life –> poems saved after death – wanted to teach people to live right

William Blake’s Writing
Songs of Innocence & Songs of Experience – neither preferable – state of our souls is between both – 21 copies of Innocence survived – 27 copies of 2 volume set survived- no copies of Experience survived

Introduction to Innocence – Blake
– natural world –> divine with Jesus – simple structure/diction –> innocence – childlike –> lamb –> sacrifice

Introduction to Experience – Blake
Speaker – announcer/bard –> prophet (past, present, future, prophet knows all) – starts in the evening –> dark – hope –> Jesus = light – don’t turn away from God

The Lamb – Blake
Child Speaker –> questioning/simple- nature- God –> lamboverall unity of God, nature, and man – opposition: lamb –> christ —> became a child to be sacrificed

The Tyger – Blake
Tyger –> contrast to lamb – devil/ferocity – corruption of adulthood – Y = archaic –> been here forever did God make both the lamb and tyger at the same time- how does man do the things he does –> evil

Holy Thursday – Blake
Innocence – taken advantage ofExperience – Greed

William Wordsworth
1770 – 1850 – influenced by surroundings – 1790 walking tour of France –> supported revolutionary ideas- neighbor to Coleridge –> together published first volume of modern poetry (Lyrical Ballad) – became richer and more conservative/rule following

Wordsworth and Nature
Nature – symbol of God and the divine – has restoring power- influences us for the good – believed in reciprocal relationship with nature (give and take) –> spiritual

Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey – Wordsworth
Imagery – beauty of nature –> lush/unique – romanticized – 5 years in the city –> memories of the place help him- world hard to understand and don’t know what happens afterward –> nature gives hope and resurrection – as a child never recognized the spirit in nature- hopes sister can find the same spiritual connection

The World is Too Much With Us – Wordsworth
– lose sight of what’s important –> ancient times were simpler = closer to nature- modern society –> too busy –> lose meaningful experiences

Samuel Taylor Coleridge
1772 – 1834 – jointly wrote Lyrical Ballad with Wordsworth – seen as failed genius- depressed, addict

Coleridge’s Poems
Demonic: Kubla Khan, Rhyme of the Ancient MarinerConversational: Frost at Midnight

Frost at Midnight – Coleridge
– wish for child to grow up in nature

Kubla Khan – Coleridge
Demonic 1. Palace underground – exotic – foreshadowing dark –> measureless cavern = abyss2. Holy Enchanted/Savage Place – haunted- demon lover – earth’s thick pants = personification of earth breathing – mighty fountain –> volcano creativity of imagination = dark 3. Wishing to recreate dome – creating poetry as great as the pleasure dome – can’t attain –> people would be afraid he’d eaten with the Godsoverall: poem of the creative process/imagination – will never be able to create perfection

Lord Byron
George Gordon 1788 -1824- at 23 seat in the House of Lords – high romantic1816 left England for Geneva –> Shelley’s – 1823 fought for Greek army

Don Juan – Byron
-thinly veiled Lord Byron – masterpiece

She Walks in Beauty – Byron
– beauty follows –> wears itphysical = eyespersonality = heart -celebration of inner and outer beauty

When We Two Parted – Byron
-speaker’s lover has cheated on him – subject of gossip – part of the shame beforehand –> now grieving silently – thought of ex lover as dead –> would greet with silence and tears

Percy Bysshe Shelley
1792 – 1822- radical political/religious views- eloped at 19 eventually left wife and two children – married Mary Godwin 22- 1816 set up in Geneva- moved to Italy till death –> produced best poetry

Ozymandias (Ramses II) – Shelley
3 Speakers – traveler, unnamed, Ozymandias 3 views of Ozymandias – traveler, Ozymandias, time – time –> mutability/change- Ozymandias –> thought immortal = tyrantTime –> not immortal –> vast sand in the desert – tyranny doesn’t last

Ode to the West Wind – Shelley
1: invocation/apostrophe = West Wind’s affect on the earth- end of summer –> leaves fall to ground from wind and stay till spring and new life- opposition: cycle of life and death 2: Wind’s affect on the sky – storm – essential winter come –> destruction and preserver of life (water) 3: Wind’s affect on the ocean- Sea = violent surface –> underneath nurturing new life4: speaking as poet- could be a leaf, cloud, wave –> looking to be born again – feels poetry is bad –> looking for destroyer and preserver5: call to wind to remake him- poet not writing poetry to fulfill writing –> have something to say End: hopeful –> poetry will be revived

John Keats
1795 – 1821 – wrote major poetry in 1 year – contracted T.

B. – sensory poet –> imagery

La Belle Dame Sans Merci – Keats
– lady = death –> love- death imagery –> withered hedge, no birds singing, lilies, dreams of hallow men- in love with death

Ode to a Nightingale – Keats
– self conscious -escape through poetry

Ode on a Grecian Urn
– beauty of art –> escaped decay – painting: mad pursuit, wild ecstasy, can’t hear melody –> imagine- youth under tree cannot move –> will not age- man will not catch/kiss woman –> she will always be thereBack: sacrifice–> pagan celebration – town –> contemplating what’s not there Us: going to age- urn will preserve the art “beauty is truth”-art = comfort/solace to man –> inspiring – truthfulness of the imagination –> comes through in art