AP Lit ; Comp Romantic Poetry

Romanticism
1780 – 1830

Elements of Romanticism 1
Natural World
– divine/good

Elements of Romanticism 2
Common Man
– humble life

Elements of Romanticism 3
Common Language

Elements of Romanticism 4
Self Conscious

Elements of Romanticism 5
Emotional

Elements of Romanticism 6
Intuitive

Elements of Romanticism 7
Individual

Elements of Romanticism 8
Nationalism
– folklore
– patriotism

Elements of Romanticism 9
Past
– medieval

William Blake
1757 – 1827
– Start of Romantic poetry
– unknown in life –> poems saved after death
– wanted to teach people to live right

William Blake’s Writing
Songs of Innocence & Songs of Experience
– neither preferable
– state of our souls is between both
– 21 copies of Innocence survived
– 27 copies of 2 volume set survived
– no copies of Experience survived

Introduction to Innocence – Blake
– natural world –> divine with Jesus
– simple structure/diction –> innocence
– childlike –> lamb –> sacrifice

Introduction to Experience – Blake
Speaker – announcer/bard –> prophet (past, present, future, prophet knows all)
– starts in the evening –> dark
– hope –> Jesus = light
– don’t turn away from God

The Lamb – Blake
Child Speaker –> questioning/simple
– nature
– God –> lamb
overall unity of God, nature, and man
– opposition: lamb –> christ —> became a child to be sacrificed

The Tyger – Blake
Tyger –> contrast to lamb
– devil/ferocity
– corruption of adulthood
– Y = archaic –> been here forever
did God make both the lamb and tyger at the same time
– how does man do the things he does –> evil

Holy Thursday – Blake
Innocence – taken advantage of
Experience – Greed

William Wordsworth
1770 – 1850
– influenced by surroundings
– 1790 walking tour of France –> supported revolutionary ideas
– neighbor to Coleridge –> together published first volume of modern poetry (Lyrical Ballad)
– became richer and more conservative/rule following

Wordsworth and Nature
Nature – symbol of God and the divine
– has restoring power
– influences us for the good
– believed in reciprocal relationship with nature (give and take) –> spiritual

Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey – Wordsworth
Imagery – beauty of nature –> lush/unique
– romanticized
– 5 years in the city –> memories of the place help him
– world hard to understand and don’t know what happens afterward –> nature gives hope and resurrection
– as a child never recognized the spirit in nature
– hopes sister can find the same spiritual connection

The World is Too Much With Us – Wordsworth
– lose sight of what’s important –> ancient times were simpler = closer to nature
– modern society –> too busy –> lose meaningful experiences

Samuel Taylor Coleridge
1772 – 1834
– jointly wrote Lyrical Ballad with Wordsworth
– seen as failed genius
– depressed, addict

Coleridge’s Poems
Demonic: Kubla Khan, Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner
Conversational: Frost at Midnight

Frost at Midnight – Coleridge
– wish for child to grow up in nature

Kubla Khan – Coleridge
Demonic
1. Palace underground
– exotic
– foreshadowing dark –> measureless cavern = abyss
2. Holy Enchanted/Savage Place
– haunted
– demon lover
– earth’s thick pants = personification of earth breathing
– mighty fountain –> volcano
creativity of imagination = dark
3. Wishing to recreate dome
– creating poetry as great as the pleasure dome
– can’t attain –> people would be afraid he’d eaten with the Gods
overall: poem of the creative process/imagination
– will never be able to create perfection

Lord Byron
George Gordon 1788 -1824
– at 23 seat in the House of Lords
– high romantic
1816 left England for Geneva –> Shelley’s
– 1823 fought for Greek army

Don Juan – Byron
-thinly veiled Lord Byron
– masterpiece

She Walks in Beauty – Byron
– beauty follows –> wears it
physical = eyes
personality = heart
-celebration of inner and outer beauty

When We Two Parted – Byron
-speaker’s lover has cheated on him
– subject of gossip
– part of the shame beforehand –> now grieving silently
– thought of ex lover as dead –> would greet with silence and tears

Percy Bysshe Shelley
1792 – 1822
– radical political/religious views
– eloped at 19 eventually left wife and two children
– married Mary Godwin 22
– 1816 set up in Geneva
– moved to Italy till death –> produced best poetry

Ozymandias (Ramses II) – Shelley
3 Speakers – traveler, unnamed, Ozymandias
3 views of Ozymandias – traveler, Ozymandias, time
– time –> mutability/change
– Ozymandias –> thought immortal = tyrant
Time –> not immortal –> vast sand in the desert
– tyranny doesn’t last

Ode to the West Wind – Shelley
1: invocation/apostrophe = West Wind’s affect on the earth
– end of summer –> leaves fall to ground from wind and stay till spring and new life
– opposition: cycle of life and death
2: Wind’s affect on the sky
– storm
– essential winter come –> destruction and preserver of life (water)
3: Wind’s affect on the ocean
– Sea = violent surface –> underneath nurturing new life
4: speaking as poet
– could be a leaf, cloud, wave –> looking to be born again
– feels poetry is bad –> looking for destroyer and preserver
5: call to wind to remake him
– poet not writing poetry to fulfill writing –> have something to say
End: hopeful –> poetry will be revived

John Keats
1795 – 1821
– wrote major poetry in 1 year
– contracted T.B.
– sensory poet –> imagery

La Belle Dame Sans Merci – Keats
– lady = death –> love
– death imagery –> withered hedge, no birds singing, lilies, dreams of hallow men
– in love with death

Ode to a Nightingale – Keats
– self conscious
-escape through poetry

Ode on a Grecian Urn
– beauty of art –> escaped decay
– painting: mad pursuit, wild ecstasy, can’t hear melody –> imagine
– youth under tree cannot move –> will not age
– man will not catch/kiss woman –> she will always be there
Back: sacrifice–> pagan celebration
– town –> contemplating what’s not there
Us: going to age
– urn will preserve the art
“beauty is truth”
-art = comfort/solace to man –> inspiring
– truthfulness of the imagination –> comes through in art