AP Lit Terms #2

ALLITERATION
A literary device which creates interest by the recurrence of initial consonant sounds of different words within the same sentence.

The poem “My Puppy Punched Me In the Eye” by Kenn Nesbitt contains alliterations. Nesbitt uses it in these two lines “my puppy punched me in the eye” and “my kitten kicked my head.” Nesbitt uses alliteration to allow the comical tone of the poem to continue and for the poem to be remembered easily. The impact of the alliteration lets the vibrant mood continue throughout the poem.

ALLUSION
A literary device which creates interests through a brief, indirect reference (not a quotation) to another literary work, usually for the purpose of associating the tone or theme of the one work with the other.

In “Ode to a Nightingale” by John Keats, the author uses allusion with Greek and Roman Mythology. Keats uses this device by speaking of the chariots of Bacchus to contast the freeness of poetry. He also compare his feelings of depression to a “Lethe-wards”, using Lethe, which meaning Hades.The author uses these allusion to help the reader better understand the connects in the poem. The impact of the allusion is that it helps add more into the poem by allowing more comparisons.

ANALOGY
A comparison between two things, or pairs of things, to reveal their similarities; sometimes expressed as a SIMILE.

In the poem, “From the Diary of an Almost-Four-Year-Old” by Hanan Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi, the author uses an analogy between her glass eye and her marbles. The speaker thinks of how her glass eyes will make her world look and compares it to her marbles. The author uses this anaolgy to represent the girl’s innocence. The impact of it is that it reminds the reader that she is still a child, though the child feel she has seen enough of life.

ASSONANCE
The close repetition of similar vowel sounds, in successive or proximate words, usually in stressed syllables.

In the poem, “My Puppy Punched Me In the Eye” by Kenn Nesbitt, assonance is used also. Nesbitt uses this deivce in these lines: “my rabbit whacked my ear” and “my lizard flipped me upside down.” The author uses this deive because it creates variety in the rhyme, so instead of being all alliteration, it contains inside rhymes too.

BLANK VERSE
Name for unrhymed iambic pentameter. An iamb is a metrical foot in which an unstressed syllable is followed by a stressed syllable. In iambic pentameter there are five iambs per line making ten syllables.

“The Ball Poem” by John Berryman uses blank verse. Berryman uses this device by having no rhyme in his poem. The author uses this device to make the poem more of a conversion than just a poem. Its impact is that it created more of the story or point of view of the speaker, in which the reader can easily understand.

COLLOQUIAL LANGUAGE
Informal, conversational language. Colloquialisms are phrases or sayings that are indicative of a specific region.

The poem “We Real Cool” by Gwendolyn Brooks uses colloquial language. The lines have no verb, so instead of we are real cool, it says “we real cool”. The author uses this device to show the how the boys he was looking at might think about themselves. It shows the time period of the poem also.

CONSONANCE
The repetition of consonant sounds in a phrase or line of poetry. The consonant sound may be at the beginning, middle, or end of the word.

This deivce is used in Edgar Allen Poe’s poem “The Sleeper”. He uses it in these lines: “I stand beneath the mystic moon,” “An opiate vapor, dewy, dim,” and “and, softly dripping, drop by drop.” Edgar Allen Poe uses this device to create a nice flow through the poem. It adds to the mysterious attutide of the speaker as well.

COUPLET
Two rhyming lines in poetry.

In the poem, “Don’t Go Gentle into the Good Night” by Dylan Thomas couplets are used. He uses the couplets to form the this poem into a villanelle. Thomas uses this device because the couplets are needed for thhe villanelle. In addition, it creates a beat that catches the reader’s attention, especially to the rhyming words. The rhyming words of the couplet allows the read to understand the theme of the poem better.

CONCEIT
An unusual, elaborate or startling analogy; a poetic literary device which was common among the Metaphysical poets of the 17th century.

An example of a conceit is in William Shakespear’s sonnet 18, “Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?” Shakespear uses this device by comparing the woman’s beauty to summer, stating she was more lovely. However, he then says that “Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, And summer’s lease hath all too short a date.” He contradicts the meaning into saying that though she is beauty beyond compare, her beauty does have limits and faults. He uses this device to bring in his other explanation of her beauty to the reader. It introduces the contradiction.

CONNOTATION
A literary device: a suggested, implied or evocative meaning.

Connotation is used in these lines “Not charioted by Bacchus and his pards, But on the viewless wings of Poesy,” of the poem “Ode to a Nightingale” by John Keats. The Keats uses the connotation by the speaker wanting to be free in the hidden ways of poetry, Poesy, and not be human society, Bacchus and his chariots. He also uses Lethe-ward to mean a dark evil place that was held inside him as another connotation. The author uses this device to explain why the speaker praises the Nightingale. Its impact is that it adds to development of the admiration of the bird.

ELEGY
A meditative poem in the classical tradition of certain Greek and Roman poems, which deals with more serious subject (e.g. justice, fate or providence). It often begins with an appeal to a muse for inspiration and includes ALLUSIONS to classical mythology. Other literary works may include elegiac [ell-leh-JI-ek] motifs, reminding the reader of the transitory nature of life.

An example of an elegy is “O Captain! My Captain” by Walt Whitman. Whitman uses this device by telling the death of the speaker’s father in the poem. He makes this poem an elegy because the speaker is telling his father’s death as it happens, which makes the poem about death. The impact it has is that it creates a sentimental mood as the father dies before he can be praised.

EPIC
A long, grand, narrative (story-telling) poem about the brave, exemplary deeds of ancient heroes. A “primary” epic the oldest type, based upon oral tradition; a “literary” epic is written down from the start.

The Odyssey by Homer is an epic. Homer uses this device by telling the story of a hero in a poetic form. He uses this device to create a detailed view of the hero. The impact it has is that it corresponds to the time period and makes it like a folk tale.

EMOTIVE LANGUAGE
Deliberate use of language by a writer to instill a feeling or visual.

The poem, “Don’t Go Gentle Into the Night” by Dylan Thomas uses emotive language. Thomas uses this device by using words such as, “crying”, “grieving”, “rage against” and “sad height”. Thomas uses this device to give off the remorseful tone the speaker has. The impact of this emotive language allows the reader to see what theme of the poem is, which is the fear or unwanting of death.

ENJAMBMENT
The continuation of reading one line of a poem to the next with no pause, a run-on line.

Hana Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi uses enjambment in her poem, “From the Diary of an Almost-‘Four-Year-Old”. She uses this device by continuing her sentences tthroughout the lines of the poem. She has seven sentences and 37 lines. ‘Ashrawi uses this device to made the poem more iniviting and to shows the age of the speaker. The impact causes the reader to understand the poem and know what and how the young speaker thinks.

FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
Descriptive language in which one thing is associated with another, through the use of SIMILE, METAPHOR, or PERSONIFICATION

In the poem “Tranquility” by StarFields, the figurative language is in the metaphor. StarFields uses figurative language by comparing time to the ocean, waves, and the shore. The author uses this device because it implies that the meaning is more than just the surface of the poem The impact of the metaphors is that it provides a deeper meaning of the poem, which is that times is everywhere and ongoing in a smooth manner that creates tranquility.

FOOT
The metrical length of a line is determined by the number of feet it contains. Monometer: One foot; Dimeter: Two feet; Trimeter: Three feet; Tetrameter: Four feet; Pentameter: Five feet; Hexameter: Six feet; Heptameter: Seven feet; The most common feet have two to three syllables, with one stressed.

The poem, “Fleas” by Ogden Nash is a monometer. Nash uses the monometer throughout the short poem, which is “Adam, Had’em”. Nash uses this device to be direct in his poem. The impact of it actually gives off a comical tone with the monometer and shortest and the meaning of Adam having them too.

Iamb
An iambic foot has two syllables. The first is unstressed and the second is stressed. The iambic foot is most common in English poetry.

An example of an iamb is in the poem, “Death, Be Not Proud” by John Donne. The author uses iamb to create a rhyme and also form it into a sonnet. The example of the iamb is DEATH be/ not proud,/ though some/ have call/ed thee. The author uses this device because it has a easy flow and enhances his caustice tone. The impact of this enchancment is that the poem undrestandable.

FREE VERSE
Type of verse that contains a variety of line lengths, is unrhymed, and lacks traditional meter.

The poem, “From The Diary of an Almost-Four-Year-Old” is a free verse. The author Hanan Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi uses this device by using no particular rhyme scheme or structure in her poem. The impact of using free verse is to connect the reader to the speaker personally and to be able to understand the meaning and events of the poem.

IMAGERY
The use of words to create pictures. An author can use lively description to create vivid pictures in the mind or appeal to other sensory experience.

The poem, “From The Diary of an Almost-Four-Year-Old” uses alot of imagery. The speaker speaks on how her vision might look like through the glass eyes and how the soldier shot her in the eye. The author uses this device to allow the reader to see the speaker’s position. It adds to the theme of innocence as well because of the vivid description from the girl, showing her age.

IMPLIED METAPHOR
a metaphor embedded in a sentence rather expressed directly as a sentence.

In the poem “Crossing the Bar” by Lord Tennyson Alfred is an implied metaphor. The author uses this poem and copare the ship departing to life and death. The author uses an implied metaphor to make a visual comparison to life and death, instead of just stating it. He creates a more lighthearted mood about life and death.

INVERSION
In poetry is an intentional digression from ordinary word order which is used to maintain regular meters. For example, rather than saying “the rain came” a poem may say “came the rain”. Meters can be formed by the insertion or absence of a pause.

In the poem, “EPISTLE II. To a Lady. Of the Characters of WOMEN” by Alexander Pope conatins an inversion. Pope uses this device in the third line of his poem, “Matter too soft a lasting mark to bear”. The author uses this device to expand off the literal meaning. The impact shows the time period of the poem and also makes the reader think beyond the given.

LYRIC
A type of poem which was originally a song meant to be sung to the accompaniment of a musical instrument, the lyre. It was associated with songs of celebration and dancing.

An example of a lyric poem is “To an Athlete Dying Young” by A. E. Housman. The author uses this device by having inside rhymes and end rhyme to help the flow of the story, such as “The time you won your town the race, We chaired you through the market-place” and “And set you at your threshold down,Townsman of a stiller town.” The author uses this device to create an easily going tempo to bittersweet tone of the speaker. The impact of it allows the speaker change to a melancholy tone towards the end.

METAPHOR
A figure of speech in which one thing is equated with something else. A comparison of different things by speaking of them directly, as if they were the same; A comparison of two different things which states that the two are actually the same thing, often through a form of the verb “to be.”

The poem “Tranquility” by StarFields uses metaphors. StarFields whole poem is this: Time slides, a gentle ocean, waves upon waves, washing the shore, loving the shore. Time is being continuely compared with each line builiding on each other. StarFields uses metaphors to created a more poetic feel to the poem. The impact causes the reader to think about how time is being compared to the ocean, waves, and shore.

MOOD
The atmosphere that pervades a literary work with the intention of evoking a certain emotion or feeling from the audience.

The mood of the poem “Don’t Go Gentle Into the Night” by Dylan Thomas is remorse. Thomas uses this mood of remorse to provide the basics of the speaker’s thoughts on others towards there soon death. The author creates this mood to create empathy for the speaker as the speaker’s own father faces death. The impact of it shows the reader the speaker’s strong resistant towards the ending of life.

MOTIF
One of the key ideas or literary devices which supports the main THEME of a literary work. It may consist of a character, a recurrent image or verbal pattern.

The motif of the poem “Death, Be Not Proud” by John Keats is that power does not equal might. Keats uses this motif by stating ways in which “Death” is a slave instead of having control. Keats uses motif to explain the speaker’s attitude of “who” death really is. The impact of the motif allows the reader to understand the center of the poem.

ODE
A lyric poem of some length, usually of a serious or meditative nature and having an elevated style and formal stanzaic structure. This type of poem celebrates something.

“Ode to the Nightingale” by John Keats is an ode. The author uses this device to praise the bird of its happiness. The author uses this device to speak on how he admire the bird for its happiness. The ode allows us to realize that the reason the speaker feel the bird is happy is because the bird lacks the problems of the human world. The impact it has is that allows the reader to understand the reason for the praise of the bird.

ONOMATOPOEIA
The use of words which sound like what they describe;

In the poem, “On the Ning Nang Nong” by Spike Milligan, onomatopoeia is used throughout. Milligan uses words like “boo”, “bang”, “ping”, and “bong” to show sounds. The author uses it to have an song-like medlody that is easy to follow. The impact of it is that the medlody creates the vibrant tone of the speaker, as if she is happy and fascinated inside the poem.

PERSONIFICATION
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes

In the poem, “Death, Be Not Proud” by John Donne, personification is being use for Death. He uses this device by gving Death human-like quailties. Donne uses this device because it provides a way for him to attack death as a thing and not an idea. The impact it has is that it causes a actual comparsion to come along and be understood. It helps the reader to better analyze the speaker point.

SIMILE
A comparison of different things by speaking of them as “like” or “as” the same;

The poem, “A Dream Deferred” by Langston Hughes uses similies through the poem. Some of the examples are “like a raisin in the sun?” and “like a heavy load”. Hughes uses similies to help simplify what he means. Its impact it that it allows the reader to compare dreams to the similies but also keeps the wonderous tone of the speaker.

SONNET
a fourteen-line lyric poem in predominantly iambic pentameter, with a formal rhyme scheme. Although there can be considerable variation in rhyme scheme, most English sonnets are written in either the Italian (Petrarchan) style or the English (Shakespearean) style.

An example of a sonnet is “Death, Be Not Proud” by John Donne. The author uses this device by following the form of the Italian sonnet. The author uses this device because it allows flexibility, which minics the way death can create happiness or be replaced by other agents. The impact of it is that it draws more attention of readers because of the rhyme scheme and flexibility.

SYMBOLISM
The use of words or objects to stand for or represent other things.

The symbolism in “From the Diary of an Almost-Four-Year-Old” is the “one spare set of eyes”. ‘Ashrawi uses this to symbolise her theme of the poem, which is innocence and experience. The impact of this shows the speaker’s ability to use her memory to remember the things she can not longer but. However, the baby won’t be able to have such gift because she is too young to know her “spare set of eyes”.

SYNTAX
An author’s distinctive form of sentence construction. Distinctive forms include: very long sentences; very short sentences; parallelism (e.g. “on the sea, in the air, etc.); and repetition of key words or phrases. A good author should be very intentional about his or her sentence construction. Very long sentences may be intended to suggest confusion or to simulate a rapid flow of ideas or emotions; or perhaps to illustrate the enormity or weight of a situation. Very short sentences may be intended to emphasize factuality or to stress a key idea. Parallelism may be used to create rhythm or stir emotion. Repetition may be used to stress a key idea or to convey an emotion.

In the poem, “From the Diary of an Almost-Four-Year-Old” by Hanan Mikha’il ‘Ashrawi, the syntax consist of short, choppy lines. She uses this to express the speaker’s ideas better. It gives an account of what the speaker’s feelings and motives are. The impact of the syntax is that it keeps you drawn in because it’s like a conversation instead of a regular poem.

TONE
The writer’s attitude, mood or moral outlook toward the subject and/or readers, e.g.: as angry, cynical, empathetic, critical, idealistic, ironic, optimistic, realistic, suspicious, comic, surprised, sarcastic or supportive;

The tone of the poem “From the Diary of an Almost-Four-Year-Old” is reflective and empathetic. ‘Ashrawi uses this tone by the way the speaker is telling her story. Instead of a rhyme-like flow, it has a conversational flow. The speaker tells her story with her mind going from one subject to another. The impact of this is that it provides the reader with reason to sympathize with the speaker and understand the theme of the poem.

VOICE
An author’s distinctive literary style, basic vision and general attitude toward the world. This is revealed through an author’s use of SYNTAX (sentence construction); DICTION (distinctive vocabulary);
PUNCTUATION; CHARACTERIZATION and DIALOGUE.

In “Death, Be Not Proud” by John Donne, the speaker had a mocking attitude. Donne has the speaker characterizes “Death” as human-like and takes his job and patronizes it. The author uses his mocking voice in the poem to create a caustic mood about “Death” to prove his position of having no fear. The impact of it is that it adds to the meaning of the poem, which is that death has no true power but its a slave to all.

villanelle
fixed nineteen-line form, originally French, employing only two rhymes and repeating two of the lines according to a set pattern.

The poem “Don’t Go Gentle Into the Night” by Dylan Thomas is a villanelle. Thomas forms the poem into the villanelle from. He does this because the poem contains strong feelings about death and having a love of life. The impact of it is that the poem is much easier to understand because of the villanelle’s form for rhyme scheme.