AP Literature and Composition Poetry Literary Movements

Metaphysical Poets
John Donne, George Herbert, and Andrew Marvell

Metaphysical Poetry Definition
-17th century english poetry
-Exhibits introspective meditations on love, death, God, and human frailty
-It holds a lot of wit, irony, and paradoxes
-Elaborate stylistic maneuvers while contrasting giant scales
-Formal tendencies to talk about: time, difficulty of ever being sure, uneasy relationship with one another and with God, fear, and death

Augustans Poets
John Dryden, Alexander Pope, etc

Augustan Poetry Definition
-Known for rhymed, heroic-couplet satire in iambic pentameter
– Wit, irony, and paradox are very important to them along with brevity
-Ongoing subject is human frailty
-Comic effects

Romantic Poets
William Wordsworth, Percy Shelley, John Keats, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Walt Whitman, etc

Romantic Poetry Definition
-Mostly written in 19th Century English/USA poetic mode
-Emotional and very descriptive
-F.I.R.E: Freedom, Imagination, Revolution, and Emotion(Key things to look for)
-Natural Imagery redeems the imagination of the individual stuck in the crowded city
-Human Imagination embodies the escape from society’s structures
-Transcendence is their ultimate goal

Symbolists Poets
Oscar Wilde, W.B Yeats, Arthur Symons, and T.S Eliot- English

Symbolists Poetry Definition
-Considered a link between romanticism and modernism as they yearn for transcendence
-Decadent/sensual directions which foreshadows sexual frankness
-Deal with Dusk/Dawn and also the time between waking/sleeping
-Synaesthesia: using one sense to describe another
-Drawn to music
– Use symbols(DUH)

Modernism Poets
Wallace Stevens, William Carlos Williams, Hilda Doolittle(H.D), Marianne Moore, T.S Eliot, and e.e. cummings

Modernism Poetry Definition
-(1912-50s) (WW1-WW2)
-Characterized as a revolutionary force
-Full of allusions while reducing human experiences to fragments
-Influenced by cubism
-Try to see many POVs at one time
-Individualism, Freedom, Focus on machines
-emerging fields of Psych and Sociology

Harlem Renaissance Poets
Paul Laurence Dunbar, Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, and Countee Cullen

Harlem Renaissance Poetry Definition
-1st half of 20th century after WW1 during Great Migration
-NYC was most famous african american neighborhoods
-Content directly related to African American concerns
-Rely on repetitive structure similar to blues lyrics

The Beats Poets
Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso, and Gary Snyder

The Beats Poetry Definition
-Post WW2 phenomenon
– Full of hallucinogenic, visionary, and anti-government concepts
-Mythologizing themselves
-Buddhism was super important
-Moved by jazz, impermanence, etc

Confessional Poets
John berryman, Robert Lowell, Anne Secton, and Slyvia Plath

Confessional Poetry Definition
-Love of personal pronouns
-Intimate content including love affairs, suicide, fear of failure, etc in their autobiographies

NY School of Poets
Barbara guest, Kenneth Koch, Frank O’Hara, and John Ashbery

NY School Poetry Definition
-Saw themselves as travelers of the abstract expressionist school of painters
-Wrote art criticism
-Aesthetic mode overlapped with the Beat spontaneity and confession poet frankness but more ironic
-Combo of surreal high art and art allusions

Black Arts Poets
Gwendolyn Brooks, Amiri Baraka, Sonia Sanchez, and Ntozake Shange

Black Arts Poetry Definition
-Associated with Black Power
-Aggressive, challenged the white establishment, and politically charged

Emily Dickinson
-Compressed wit and irony
– Doesn’t fit entirely in the transcendence category as well as the metaphysical

Robert Frost
-Active during modernism
-Locally colored content that cloaked philosophical ideas

-Wrote before and after WW2
-Modernists but has transcendence qualities

Elizabeth Bishop
-Confessional poet

Adrienne rich
-Feminist/political poet
-Shares background with Confessional poet

Seamus Heaney
-uses rural imagery to take on issues of identity from the post-colonial confusion of what it meant to be irish