AP Poetry Chapter 19: Prosody: sound, rhythm and rhyme in poetry

vowel sounds
provide the continuous stream of speech

is the “uh” sound in English as the e in the. The Schwa provides a light stress

consonant sounds
produce meaningful sounds that obstruct the flow of speech and can product a more abrupt, staccato type of rhythm

is the repetition of similar vowel sounds to produce flow of language, i.e.

“I do believe you what now you speak” The repetition of oo brings flow to this one from Hamlet.

the repetition of similar consonant sounds for emphasis of sounds. “In kitsch cup concupiscent curds”

the repetition of identical or nearly identical concluding syllables usually at the end of lines

combination of vocal speeds, rises and falls, starts and stops, vigor and slackness, and relaxation and tension

heavy stress
syllables receive accents

light stress
syllables are unaccented. The combination of accented and unaccented syllables creates the beat of a line of verse.

the act of scanning a poem to determine its beat

a foot
a stressed syllable accompanied by one or two unaccented syllables, but could also be two accented syllables or two unaccented syllables in a row

lines designed in any number of feet, i.e. manometer (one foot), dimeter (two feet), trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter, heptameter, or octameter

a foot of unaccented followed by accented

a foot of accented followed by unaccented

a foot of two accented syllables in a row

a foot of two unaccented syllables

a foot of accented followed by two unaccented syllables

a foot of two unaccented syllables followed by an accented syllable

imperfect foot
a variant or substitute foot occurring in a line that is part of a poem with otherwise regular meter

sprung rhythm
invented and almost exclusively used by Gerard Manley Hopkins.

A rhythm in which stresses are sprung from the line by the use of stressed monosyllabic words in succession. Alliteration also contributes.

caesura or pl. caesurae
a natural pause in poetry especially one that occurs within the same line In scansion such a pause is indicated by a double slash //

the process of containing a line into the next line

the use of words whose sounds imitate their meaning. “Bang”

exact rhymes
normal rhymes

inexact rhymes
also known as near, slant, half or off rhymes, such as rhymes that nearly do but do not exactly rhyme, such as supple and purple

internal rhymes
rhymes that occur within the same line

cliche rhymes
easy rhymes that show little effort such as hat and cat

rising or iambic rhyme
occurs when the final stressed words of two iambic lines as in For never was there a story of more woe/ Then that of Juliet and Romeo.

There are also trochaic, dactylic, and anapestic rhymes

sight rhymes
rhymes that look as though they should rhyme but in actuality are inexact such as above and approve

identical rhymes
rhymes that employ identical words in rhyming positions

rhyme scheme
the pattern of end rhymes in a poem indicated by letters that correspond to first, second, third rhymes such as aabbcc or abba cddc etc.