AP Rhetorical Terms allegory-metaphor

allegory
the device of using character and/or story elements symbolically to represent an abstraction in addition to the literal meaning

alliterations
the repetion of sounds, especially inital constant sounds in two or more neighboring words

allusion
a direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place or work of art

ambiguity
the multiple meanings, either intentional or unintentional, of a word, phrase, sentence or passage

analogy
a similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them

anaphora
one of the devices of repetition, in which the same expression (word or words) is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses or sentences

anecdote
a short narrative detailing particulars of an interesting episode or event

antecedent
the word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun

aphorism
a terse statement of known authorship which expresses a general truth or a moral principle

apostrophe
a figure of speech that directly addresses ab absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love

atmosphere
the emotional mood created by the entirety of a literary work, established partly by the setting and partly by the author’s choice of objects that are described

clause
a grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb

colloquial/ colloquialism
the use of slang or informalities in speech or writing

coherence
a principle demanding that the parts of any composition be arrangesd so that the meaning of the whole may be immediately clear and intelligible

conceit
a fanciful expression usually in the form of an extended metaphor or suprising analogy between seemingly dissimilar objects

connotation
the nonliteral, associative meaning of a word; the implied, suggested meaning

denotation
the strict, literal, dictionary definition of a word, deviod of any emotion, attitude, or color

diction
related to style, refers to the writer’s word choices, especially with regard to their correctness, clearness, and effectiveness

didactic
literally means “teaching”; has the primary aim of teaching or instructing, especially the teaching of moral or ethical principles

euphemism
Greek for “good speech”, a more agreeable or less offensive substitute for a generally unpleasant word or concept

exposition
one of the four chief types of composition; purpose is to explain something; in drama, it is the introductory material, which creates the tone and gives the setting and introduces the conflict and characters

extended metaphor
a metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work

figurative language
writing or speech that is not intended to carry a literal meaning and is usually mean to be imaginative and vivid

figure of speech
a device used to produce figurative language; includes apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonomy, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatment

generic conventions
describes traditions for each genre

genre
major category into which a literary work fits; includes prose, poetry, and drama

homily
literally means “sermon”, but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice

hyperbole
a figre of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatment

imagery
the sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions

inference/ infer
to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented

invective
an emotionally violent, verbal dununciation or attack using strong, abusive language

irony/ ironic
the contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant; the difference between what appears to be and what is actually true

loose sentence
a type of sentence in which the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by a dependent gramatical units such as phrases or clauses

metaphor
a figure of speech using implied comparison of seemingly unlike things or the substitution of one for the other, suggesting some similarity