Arabic Poetry

What FORMAL ELEMENTS typified classical poetry (in a pattern established by the pre-Islamic ode)?
Hemistitch
Qafiya (end rhyme)
Enjambment

Enjambment
each line is independent in meaning

Qasida
classical ode

Qasida structure
1. Nasib
2. Rihla
3. Gharad

Nasib
Amatory prelude
speaker recalls the love he left
sense of longing, nostalgia, anguish

Rihla
The journey
speaker complains of fatigue and suffering on his journey by camel (sometimes horse) to a new destination
praises camel (compensates for lost love)

Gharad
Main theme/final trajectory
often include:
Madih/Fakhr
Hija’
Ghazal
Ritha’

Madih
praise
author puts forward case for being rewarded for his poem
praising patron

Fakhr
self-glorification
praises himself/tribe

Hija’
satire
often satirizing member of a rival tribe

Ghazal
love/erotic

Ritha’
lament/elegy

Bayt
line of poetry

Why was pre-Islamic poetry still important after the advent of Islam?
major source for Arabic grammar and vocab
clarified the language, aiding in understanding the Quran

Mu’allaqa
hanging ode
7 best qasidas hung up on the Ka’aba in Mecca

Jahili poet
Imru’ Al Qays

Abbasid court poet
Abu Nuwas

Abu Nuwas
homoerotic poems
khamriyya

Khamriyya
wine poems

Sufi poets
Khansa’
Rabia’ al Basri
Mansur al Hallaj

Neoclassicism poet
Ahmad Shawqi

Romanticism poet
Gibran Khalil Gibran

Mahjari poet
Abu Qasim al Shabbi

Pioneers of Free Verse Movement (Iraq)
Abd al Wahhab al Bayati
Badr Shakir al Sayyab
Nazik al Malaika

Modern era poets
Mahmoud Darwish
Nizar Qabbani
Adonis