Arabic Poetry

What FORMAL ELEMENTS typified classical poetry (in a pattern established by the pre-Islamic ode)?
HemistitchQafiya (end rhyme)Enjambment

Enjambment
each line is independent in meaning

Qasida
classical ode

Qasida structure
1. Nasib2.

Rihla3. Gharad

Nasib
Amatory preludespeaker recalls the love he leftsense of longing, nostalgia, anguish

Rihla
The journeyspeaker complains of fatigue and suffering on his journey by camel (sometimes horse) to a new destinationpraises camel (compensates for lost love)

Gharad
Main theme/final trajectoryoften include:Madih/FakhrHija’GhazalRitha’

Madih
praiseauthor puts forward case for being rewarded for his poempraising patron

Fakhr
self-glorificationpraises himself/tribe

Hija’
satireoften satirizing member of a rival tribe

Ghazal
love/erotic

Ritha’
lament/elegy

Bayt
line of poetry

Why was pre-Islamic poetry still important after the advent of Islam?
major source for Arabic grammar and vocabclarified the language, aiding in understanding the Quran

Mu’allaqa
hanging ode7 best qasidas hung up on the Ka’aba in Mecca

Jahili poet
Imru’ Al Qays

Abbasid court poet
Abu Nuwas

Abu Nuwas
homoerotic poemskhamriyya

Khamriyya
wine poems

Sufi poets
Khansa’Rabia’ al BasriMansur al Hallaj

Neoclassicism poet
Ahmad Shawqi

Romanticism poet
Gibran Khalil Gibran

Mahjari poet
Abu Qasim al Shabbi

Pioneers of Free Verse Movement (Iraq)
Abd al Wahhab al BayatiBadr Shakir al SayyabNazik al Malaika

Modern era poets
Mahmoud DarwishNizar QabbaniAdonis