As choose to hire these elites from other

As businesses are now surviving in the globalisation era, it
is not hard to tell that there is an increasing interest in employing
expatriates to deal with international assignments. (Abdullah and Cheam, 2011)
Senior expatriates at managerial level who are experienced and skillful are
high in demand for the international market. (Kamgoen and Duangkaew, 2008) Some
companies choose to hire these elites from other regions of the world, whereas
larger companies tend to train their best men to become one. (Suutari, 1998) It
is common for one to have their own kind of perceptions or assumptions about
how the world or a country works. In order to break through these stereotypical
thoughts, the best way is to assign one to work abroad for at least a few
months, to let him or her to experience local lifestyle. (Black and Gregerson,
1999)The definition of migration does not only restrict to the
movement of people from one country to another, but also the movement of
cultures. (Castles & Miller 2009; as cited in World Bank, 2010)
Interestingly, western companies tend to use home-country expatriate managers
to run international operation, despite the issues with difficulties in
adjusting to new environment are found. (Suutari, 1998) Kamgoen and Duangkaew
(2008) then pointed out that multinational companies hire expatriate managers
who understand Western management mostly for the reason being companies believe
in western expatriate manager’s management style, and hoping to benefit from
their different kind of management and leadership act. Most of the developing countries’ labour force is made up of
international migrants, and there are challenges and debate as to the vigorous
job competition between migrants and the locals. (World Bank, 2010)
Furthermore, migrants and the locals tend to experience cultural shocks working
in the same environment. The following, will be a case study by Kamgoen and
Duangkaew (2008) looking at how Thai culture has affected expatriates’
leadership in management position.As Thailand is recovering from the economic crisis in 1997,
there is an increase in the number of overseas organisations who chose to invest
in Thailand, and setting up their Asia-headquarters in Thailand. Without a
doubt, there is also an increase of expatriates working in Thailand. CB Richard
Ellis (CBRE) Co., Ltd, an American real estate chain operates in Thailand, led
by a Britain leader decided to hire more Western employees after realising the
sharp increase in Western customers. The management team believes that by
introducing more western employees into the company, they are able to retain
large number of western customers. As the employees come from the same cultural
background as the customers, they know better about the needs and wants of
customers.However, when it comes to tasks in relation to communicate
with Thai officials from Land Department or Government officers, it would be
Thai employees’ specialty. The sharing of knowledge, culture and experience
among each other is important, as it drives the working efficiency and quality
to the next level. Being able to expand its sales to western customers has make
the CBRE’s business competitive and stands out from its pool of competitors. CBRE’s managers are made up of expatriates and locals. It was
found that though the company was operated in Thailand, its business cultures
tends to be a mix of both Thai and Anglo-Saxon culture. Instead of obeying, and
blend into the Thai cultures, expatriates tend to influence their colleague and
Thai subordinates by pushing their culture and exercising their values. Moreover,
as Thai have higher flexibility in following power distribution and acceptance
as to uncertainty (Hofstede, 1980, as cited in Kamgoen and Duangkaew, 2008),
Thai colleagues would eventually accept the influence of Western culture within
the organisation.Another interesting case study to look at would be Abdullah
and Cheam’s (2011) research in finding the issues and trends in expatriation
Management, based on the opinions of Malaysian informants working in foreign
subsidiaries. Four informants from two different states of Malaysia was
interviewed, and all of them are holding managerial position in Human Resource
Departments by then. One of the informant commented that sometimes, expatriates
tend not to return to their home country, worried about having to readapt to
home country, and benefits might be further reduced. The informant said that
they do not view expatriates who refused to return their home country as a bad
thing at all, as they are a part of the company’s important assets to train future
employees.Moreover, further explained by another informant, most of the
time expatriates are usually in managerial posts to lead a department, or a
group of subordinates. If the expatriates in the company is having high
turnover rate, then the local employees would have to readapt themselves every
time when new expatriate manager comes in. The process of readapting takes
time, and it would be frustrating for the employees to cope with new
expatriates as they would need to suit themselves into different styles of management
(Budianta, 2015). Suutari (1998) supports this view by saying that, adaptation
to social interaction is one of the major issues faced by local employees as a
result of not being able to interpret expatriates’ views, and create contact
with expatriates.As mentioned earlier, one of the best ways to broaden one’s
view and clear off stereotypical thoughts regarding certain country is by
putting them into a foreign country and allow them to get used to the lifestyle
over a period of time. The same could be done to prepare expatriates for
international assignments. Take Stephen Burke, vice president of Disney, for
example, he was sent to France to observe and inspect EuroDisney theme park back
in 1993. (Black, 1999) Initially, he has got the same views and thoughts as
other senior managers in America, believing that alcohol should not be made
available in the Disney theme parks as they are made for families. However,
after several months of living in France, he found out that perhaps, the
non-alcohol policy is hindering most of its potential local consumers from
entering EuroDisney as it is a common culture that is practiced by the French to
have lunch with a glass of wine to go with. In addition, Burke also realise
that there are not enough vacation packages made available, which is preferred
by many European consumers.After understanding the culture and the needs of local
market, Burke persuade Disney’s top management to abolish the no-alcohol policy,
and start selling wine at its French park. In addition, he requests Disney to
create more vacation packages too. Along with other changes, it turns out Burke
is right, and he succeeded in improving the sales of EuroDisney, and helped
EuroDisney to achieve its first operational profit. Burke admitted that the
assignment in France has provided him an eye-opened experience which changes
the way he perceives the world.Followed by the news of the Brexit, is the issues and
questions regarding the impacts of immigrants. It was reported by Smith (2016),
of Independent, that according to the Institute for Public Policy Research,
there are about 55,000 EU nationals who are currently working under the NHS,
and one in 10 of the UK’s registered doctors is an EU national. Immigrants have
made up a considerable amount of the NHS’s labour force. If the immigration
rules and regulations have not carefully considerate them, taking them into
accounts of restructuring the immigration plannings, then these immigrants
might end up going back to their own country, and NHS would have ended up with
shortage of labour, which would cause problems to the services provided by NHS.
(The King’s Fund Verdict, 2015)There has always been a myth that increase of migrants would decrease
the number of job opportunities available for locals, and hence result in more
unemployment. (Schein, 2010) However, there has been studies researched on this
matter, and the outcome of the studies suggest that immigrant workers has neither
direct impact on wages, nor unemployment of the local job seekers. (Lemos and
Portes, 2008; Giplin et al., 2006; as cited in Marangozov, 2008) In addition,
the Department of Business Innovation and Skills (2015) has published a
research paper on the impacts of migrant workers on UK businesses. The research
paper is full of examples with positive feedbacks as to migrant workers working
in the UK. One of the great examples would be the case regarding a TV
Production company in Northern Ireland, whose labour force is made up of 30 to
40 per cent of migrants. The company has got journalist and production staff
from USA and Canada, who has got good skills and are experienced in the fields.
One of the local staff stated that he has learnt a lot from colleagues who are
expatriates, as they see things from different views, and they have high
research skills which local staffs tend not to have. Another interesting example would be the virtual effect firm
based in London, whose workforce is made up of eighty to ninety percent of
expatriates. The company are seeking for talents all over the world, by
attending animation festivals in France and Germany, and they also fly to China
to give talks, at the same time to recruit potential employees. The director of
the company expressed that, the company hired people from different backgrounds
and nationality because as they live in different environment, being taught
under different style of education system, they actually own strengths in
certain area that the others do not. He later gives an example regarding a
Japanese employee he employed. The Japanese employee actually know his
technical skills of software very well, and undeniable, he might be the most
knowledgeable person in the field of software design among the others in the
company. He tackled questions in different ways, which fascinate his peers, and
provided new ways as to how to solve particular problem. His solution as to the
issues has saved the company a lot of time in resolving the same problem, and
increased the overall working efficiency.Virtual effect is an area that needs to be rapidly developed
as technology is advancing in order to coop with new technical demands and
opportunities. It also involves high collaborative team work where employees
get to be bombarded with different questions every day. The desirable way to
solve the questions is by holding discussions between groups of employees,
local and expatriates, in order to generate innovative ideas and creative
brainstorm which eventually contribute in forming the best approaches against issues.
(Selmer, 1995)On the other hand, expatriates with extra language skills is a
huge asset to businesses too. It is difficult for UK businesses to find local
employees who are fluent in other languages. (Budianta, 2015) Mainly because,
certain languages are not widely taught by schools. Hence, recruiting expatriates
who have exclusive language skills would be a must for businesses, especially
multinational companies who often have to communicate with international
clients. (Shen and Lang, 2009) One might ask, “Why do companies recruit
expatriates with certain language skills, but not train local employees to
master the language?” The answer is straightforward: It costs a lot to train
one local in a foreign language, needless to say training few more others to
reach fluent level. (Abdullah and Cheam, 2011)Though hiring expatriates who are fluent in certain language
could be a plus is to the business, it could also be a tradeoff if not handled
carefully. (Shen and Lang, 2009) In most of the cases, expatriates who held
high education qualification, and who are experienced have higher chances of
being hired, contributes in the success of the business, however there are two
major considerations UK employers should always keep in mind: English language
skills, and cultural awareness dealing with local employees. (Schein, 2010)
Having expatriates who owns high qualification and experiences but lack of
English skills to work with local employees could cause misunderstanding, or
even conflicts at work, as the expatriates might not be able to express
themselves clear enough in English, and both expatriates and local employees
might have problems interpreting each other’s words.Most of the examples raised above are of current employees,
so, what about those semi-permanent migrants who stayed, and leave after their
international assignment is done? Also, is there any chance for former migrant
employees to collaborate with their ex-employers? In the era of globalisation,
these are actually legit, and possible to work on. Multinational companies have
been very particular about maintaining relationship with their overseas
partners and customers. (Black and Gregerson, 1999) Company who intend to
expand, could do the same too. By maintaining good relationship with previous
migrant employees, businesses are actually securing a relationship that could
be useful if they are planning to expand in the home countries of the migrants
they are keeping in touch with. (Department of Business Innovation and Skills,
2015)Migrants are the best alternative when there is no other
local has got the skills in doing the job (Abdullah and Cheam, 2011).
Businesses have to learn and accept how the world has changed, and follow the
footsteps of technology and globalisation. (Kamgoen and Duangkaew, 2008) Other
than that, governments and societies should also be prepared to adjust
themselves into different environment in order to survive the everchanging
world. (Black and Gregerson, 1999) To be successful, the people within the
organisation would have to work together in reaching the same target. (Schein,
2010) Throughout the examples that have been used in this essay, it is important
for locals and expatriates to understand and respect the different in certain
cultural values, to avoid misunderstanding, especially expatriates who have
taken up the managerial roles. (Suutari, 1998)Schein (2010) stated in his book, Organisational Culture and Leadership that, as globalism and
information technology are becoming the focus in business arena, it is crucial
for leaders to learn, and try to solve these cultural challenges. He added
that, business owners would have to reconsider how they hope to develop their
business, as there are huge differences between managing a multinational
company, joint ventures, and international partnerships.

In general, the impacts of increasing migration between
countries on business cultures tend to be more positive than negative. The
examples show that, by incorporating migrants into local working environment,
it generates exchange of skills and experience, and hence enhance the overall
productivity and performance of businesses. Moreover, businesses could benefit
from migrants’ assistance when business owner is considering to expand. The
advises provided by migrants could enable business owner to evaluate decisions
from a new perspective, and hence be more prepared for the outcome of
decisions.