think about title, make list of important words and phrases, paraphrase into own words through own experiences, connotation- think deeply about its meaning, observe the speakers and the poet’s attitudes through tone, note speaker shifts, examine title again to interpret, and make final decision on the theme
American students majoring in English study works such as Shakespeare and Milton. They also study short novels or storytelling by Native-Am, African-Am, Chinese-Am and Hispanic writers // Traditions overlaps each other; they analyize writers work borrowing ethnic rhetorical tradition, canonical lit, and merged rhetorical and lit traditions
a) American colonistsb) Smaller group descended from a large groupsc) Minority groupsd) Smaller / larger groups (for example: both British and American, and Native American Literature)
misconception of literature
“Literature covers only written works.” Due to this belief, Deaf Lit has been excluded (as seen in “oral” cultures) and there has been a general lack of exposure to ASL lit in schools with main focus on Eng.
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ASL Stories and Art
passed down throughout years and has been kept alive by numerous ASL artists and storytellers
Deaf expression of language
vernacular stories; art forms; both consciously and unconsciously mixed the vernacular tradition in ASL and literary tradition in Eng; videotaping
before ____ ASL was not recognized as a legit language, so ASL lit went unnoticed and English literacy was emphasized
during this decade, research led to a formal recognition of ASL as a language
in this decade, “Deaf World” appeared in publications of the Deaf literacy (from NTID) including poetry , narrative, play, and art
This year recognized a formal celebration of ASL literature
this year there was a National ASL Literature
bilingual or even multilingual conversations can be part of ASL literacy, often outside of the classroom informally at deaf school, settings, Deaf families and other deaf contexts this is considered part of the _______
True or False: Literacy for ASL is equivalent to reading and writing skills
distinct components of literacy
1. functional literacy2.
cultural literacy3. critical literacy
focuses on the basic language skills, the ability to use ASL to communicate effectively in the Deaf world
focuses on the values, heritage and shared experiences based on the daily lives of Deaf people
focuses on the use of literature as means of empowerment and ideological awareness within the Deaf World
a. Determine plotb. Speculate its theme(s)c. Examine character motivationd. Focus on author’s way of using language, symbolism and imagerye.
Narrate history and culturef. Identify how all these variables connect to the piece of fiction itself. Ex: well-known American writer/novelist Ernest Hemingway.
just art form for drama and narrative, the same as artistic ASL. the two are parallel
changes in ASL Lit
ASL Lit has been developing, evolving, and unfolding. the number of Deaf country theaters has expanded since 1975 and have been produced and distributed on videotape all over the country
researched by Russian sociolinguistics; the interanimation and negotaiation of two or more unequal language in diverse works and productions based on multilingual and multicultural societies.
Literary doesnt just mean utilizing English lang alone.
started to convey the needs and desires of humans to the gods in ancient times. It is based on individual’s negative experiences in order to overcome a system of oppression.
functions in a way similar to the messenger. Interprets the Deaf world’s needs, desires and aspirations of the smaller groups pertaining to the values of the hearing world (majority). They ply with and manipulate the English language for ASL purposes. For example, NTD “my third eye and parade” which depicted the comic and tragic lives of the Deaf
NTD My Third Eye
it was rife with satirical overtones and many role reversals were between hearing and deaf characters.
For example, Bernard Bragg who was well-known deaf actor in the deaf world struggled to make his “k” sound right. He used his voice in this play in front of the hearing and deaf audience.
has a role in ASL storytelling, ASL poetry, ASL artist and intermixes. He mediates, challenges, and interprets. Deaf method of literary criticism shows up in writing or telling; He is partly functioning as a literacy critic as well. minority cultures in general tend to mainstream literary tradition and the vernacular ASL tradition includes both– they present the information through a specific artistic medium that challenges the information– they mediate between 2 cultures because they understand both cultures
open to everyone to feel mingled as equals. Multiple language and rhetorical traditions often became interanimated here where there are different people of different 1. socioeconomics 2.
ethnic groups 3. dialects 4. religions
people at carnivals
church leaders, merchants, and peasants
NAD conventions, Deaf way festivals, Bowling tournaments, Reunions
A mismatch of everything such as:1.
ASL and Eng2. ASL vernacular art forms3. Adaptations4. Orality and Literacy5. Visuality and Aurality6. Performance and literature
make up stories
started among deaf kids when deaf adults told them good, sad and scary stories in ASL at the dorm or in class at deaf schools.
wrtten in English by ella mentz in 8th grade at the Berkley School for the Deaf in California
Ella Mae’s High school teacher that taught her Poetry could be done through ASL
a composition designed to convey experiences, ideas, or emotions in a vivid and imaginative way, characterized by the use of language chosen for its prosody and suggestive power and by the use of literary techniques such as meter, metaphor, and rhyme
Ella Lentz explained that poems have no _____, but it is mostly through creativity in ASL. you have to watch poems repeatedly and analyze until you understand.
Lentz poem- telephone lines parallel to the music; stanza is related to a flute, a piano and a drum every time they played following the rhythm, combined in writing in Engl. Then she translated the poem in ASL. Both music showed an emotion, but in the writing part indicates verbally and audioty approaches which are opposed to ASL that focuses on teh visual approach.
End of poem asks what is inside the telephone lines . She didn t know what it was just a feeling and visual inspiration
sign for poetry
is based on feelings and experiences from the oppression. more descriptive then the old sign.
the year ASD was founded/ after which many deaf kids could enjoy getting together to develop culture. their community grew and started to pass to next generations.
during the early years of this decade, hearing people involved in working with deaf kids as teachers disliked signing and tried to destroy signing by forcing oralism
hearing people invented this when Deaf people wouldnt give up on signing. It caused deaf people to feel uncomortable.
caused many deaf schools to close, caused isolation of deaf kids, and weakend deaf culture
by Lentz: used old sign for deaf to represent a door.
First deaf kids were placed in deaf schools. then hearing teachers entered their deaf doors trying to destroy their signing. the deaf students prevented them from interfering with signing
The children’s garden
:Lentz- interpretation is ideal and perfect for deaf kids where they grew up in deaf schools. they are suffered through oppression among hearing people. title comes from word- kindergarten
Said those deaf children who believed in me should throw people who tried to destroy their life.
they ought to use chain attached their feet thrown in the water away. It implies the language and communication- L.O.G.O.S
phonemes2. syllables3. words4.
nature of a line in ASL poetry
this shows that the traditional poetic rules do exist in ASL poetry. this is the poem where the snow falls and the tree falls- each movement represents a line. Clayton Valli. Before 1979 there was no one familiar enough with ASL poems to define the Nature of this poetry. Not simply to interpret ASL poetry following standard hearing poetry.- that is opposed to Valli’s argument
Sign lang linguistic research shows that sign languages have own version of phonology that is not sound patterns– it is the parameters
the phonemic aspects of a visual, spatial and kinetic language system (ex. “snowflake” by Valli)
true or false: rhymed verse and poetry are interchangeable terms
true or false: Poetic texts can be created into all shapes, sizes, and forms which means free verse, concrete poetry, performance poetry, Chinese calligraphic (art) poetry and ethnopoetics (language).
TRUE OR FALSE: Verse line may have been the form of choice for the elite English literary class no longer dominant in our postmodern, multicultural society not like in the past centuries.
an element of ASL free verse inspired by Robert Frost- represents the line division rhyme
an element of ASL free verse; inscribes boundaries between the visual, spatial, performance, and literary arts
foundation of ASL poetry; the parameters of ASL. Bragg’s translation of “since feeling is first” like the lines in cumming’s poems. diagonal lines and circular composition, spiral shapes are often repeated
in ASL poetry, may be referred to as movement path lines (Edward Kilma and Ursula Bellugi)
first linguist to analyze ASL as valid language
famous deaf performer; used visual vernacular in the cinematic properties during his time in NTD.
an ASL artist; explained that the modes of analysis developed for spoken and written media dont adequately account for the visual spatial kinetic properties of signed languages.
He has 3 baseic cinematic properties
accouring to Hernandez: 1. Camera 2. Shot 3. editing
explained showing that signer is placed very much as a camera; the field of vision and angle of view.
When asked what kind of accent they have, deaf people way that they are from Deafland. then the hearing person becomes confused and the deaf person and his friends laugh. this shows that hearing person is ignorant about deaf
identity, normality, language, and ultimately literature
Place of Their Own
by Van CLeve and Crouch; talks about using original sources. it focuses of the Deaf community during the 19th century.
largely through schools for deaf, deaf people began developing common lang and a sense of community. it brings the perspective of history to bear on the reality of deafness and provides fresh and impt insight into lives of deaf Americans.
speech is standard normality according to principles of traditional lit as being a phonetically written, textual form of art only related to speech. Graphic writing is only seen as a for of speech- not signing.
argued that videotaped poetry should be considered a form of writing.
the body as writing, deaf sign itself as writing. all in the same way speech can be written
TRUE OR FALSE: language traditionally means speech. this philosopy is voice bias in western civilization
grew up in a deaf fam and didnt know other people could speak until he saw his neighbors talking
his theory was to justify that difference in signs are simply subsets of a larger system.
writing reveals all parts of a word and we can see that sign lang has parts too. there is a good ex. bad vs bed. ASL uses same kind of system- good vs thank you
(1988) stated that all human brains are hard-wired for language reguardless of the mode
in _____ poizner, kilma and bellugi researched speech and sign and proved they stimulate same area of brain (1987)
Derrida (1973) pointed out that we have the illusion that speech and writing are 2 separate things.
but she shows sign is no different than any other lang. this tehory is based on both hearing and seeing together equally. speech isnt superior over seeing.
labels sign lang relegated to the socially inferior status of graphic writing below the transcendence of speech. signing not speech was considered deaf and dumb.
reflects his inner voice through writing poems. then the performance with their voice embedded is separated from the author, then it will be the reader’s feelings that builds a new voice upon this work
the image of the author is implicit part of the poem, it is only separate from the author when someone else signs their poem
he focuses on written Eng and how it is changed to ASL using facial expression, character, and techniques. he mentioned that deaf kids dont realize the number of drafts required to reach quality poems; he supported teh idea to teach cinematic techniques to develop lit structure and advance range of ASL as big role to increase deaf students adeptness.
ability to use multiple perspectives in camera
ASL lit in education
There are different ways of how ASL Literature might fit in the educational process:1.Improving English is often a priority; therefore ASL must be allowed to be the same.2. Video and DVD texts should be used as social, cultural and historical tools for Deaf Studies.3.
Medium for performance referred to the Deaf Culture.4.Storytelling based on historical characters and events.
is important for deaf culture, identity awareness, history, playing with lang, skill development, and self esteem
(1835) a deaf author who said to attempt to describe a lang of signs by words, or to learn such a lang from books, is like attempt impossibilities.
(1913) the president of NAD famous for his quote- there is but one known means of passing on the language: through the use of moving picture films
in this year all communication through ASL had to happen live and face to face. films are main technology to preserve ASL for literature
strong advocate for oralism. tried to eradicate sign language, stop intermarriage and in effect quash deaf culture
the host of ASL lit tape. explains that poetry in general emphasizes the articulation in its own rhythm based on sound only.
the sign of poetry was misused for many yrs before ASL became recognized. this sign is related to music which doesnt apply to ASL. ASL poetyr is based on visual rhythm. it is not similar to general poetry at all
the poem shows handshape, repetition, integration.
it is basic and simple the rule is related to number 1-10. deaf kids are greatly influenced by deaf adults on how to use ASL poetry. they can learn from them easily and know the difference b/w ASL convo and ASL poetry
true or false: ASL had been oppressed for many years and did not allow deaf people to freely develop start being creative use of ASL for poetry. Once ASL was an official legitimate language then use of poetry flourished.
not the same as regular rhythm. has similar repetitions in hand shapes, movements in signs and facial expression.
21 different rules by Valli were developed. he made several random rules
cow and rooster
this poem has a limited handshpae. (‘3’ ‘y’ and ‘5’); has different movements and uses art.
the story is deeply expressed by the visual experience of details at the same time playing with numbers/letters. the two animals fight
this poem is signed by Abraham Reda and is arranged in numbers that are different than 5 yr old boy who signed it simply from 1-10 not deeply. Abraham’s story is more complicated because he used 1-5 on both hands forwards and backward
debbie rennie; about a veal boycott. It has 4 signs:C for plateA for gnawl for hornsF for eyes
a complicated poem. fingerspelling combined with forward, backward, and repetitive movement. Facial expression consistent for rhythm
a poem that uses 5 handshape with diff movements- snow and cold = winter, flower = spring’ grass- summer, leaves= fall.
symbols imply imagery based on deaf view of world. purpose of camouflaging stories is to clarify the story
used both hands at same time to sign his poem. used all parameters and rhythm. he has a different arrangement not he usual common arrangements in ASL poetry. Lons dad
true or false: There are different rules to be chosen to fit in ASL Poetry. All languages’ vernaculars have their own rules, there is no standard one rule.
tears of life
signed by Vivienne Simmons.
used both hands with different shapes at same time. the movements were consistent. one hand stayed in same position while other moved. the story shows how she grew up and her life experience- happy tears vs sad tears
This title showed that person explained his deaf experience growing up.
His repetition of that is related to the concept of growing up, but not showing signing for “growing up.” It showed movement from different levels for that symptom. Deaf people have similar repetition in this kind of poetry.
sit and smile
this is Darla Thompsons poem. explains her experience in the hearing world. used different arrangements and movements with repetition. she revealed her feelings being oppressed by hearing people who controlled her which caused not being able to communicate with them. Darla”s interpretation shows how she sat and smiled at different events or situations while hearing people talked around her.