Background and Literature Review: Overthe past decade, international and local communities realised the importance ofa sustainable construction industry, and specifically the building sector ofconstruction industry. it is believed to be beneficial for encouraging societalchange towards sustainable construction in a global context. In this regard,project managers and construction leaders of sustainable projects are convincedto transform the subordinates, and influence them to achieve better sustainableperformance.
This study is an extension of theprevious study done about the leadership competences and transformationalqualities as hierarchal, reflective construct, incorporating ten relatedcomponents used for the assessment of leadership behaviour in a sustainableproject. The model is used to observe a direct impact of projectmanagers/leaders on the success criteria for sustainable buildings. Generally,this study encompasses some of the important components from leadershipassessment in the context of construction project managers in sustainablebuilding projects. This study has generated a new model to facilitate theprocess of sustainability in the construction industry.With the advancement oftechnologies and standardization in architecture, engineering, construction andoperation industries, the idea of sustainable development is getting more andmore important day by day.
Leadership plays a key role in maintaining sustainabilityin a construction project. This study was chosen because it provides a goodanalysis of how leadership competences of project managers is related to thesuccess criteria of organizations in the development of a sustainableconstruction projects. As a student of project management, this study rendersuseful insights about how leadership can affect the sustainability of aconstruction projects. The researchers have reviewed astudy carried out about “Leadership Behaviour of Project Managers inSustainable Construction Projects” was carried out by Amin Akhavan Tabassi, Maria Argyropoulou, Kamand M. Roufechaei, Rachel Argyropoulouin October 2016. In this study the impact of managerial competence, andintellectual competence on project managers was studied.
Eight major componentsfrom intellectual and managerial competence were studied, and the outcomessuggest that the intellectual competence of project managers represents themost considerable factor on sustainable building accomplishments It can be said undoubtedly thatsustainability achieved in the construction industry is not adequate, and developingcountries like Malaysia have just begun to meet the challenge of sustainabledevelopment in the construction industry. A research on sustainable projectdevelopment and leadership behaviour in the construction industry will have apositive influence on the development of the project and drive forward a futurefor better performance in the building industry in countries like Malaysia.Most of the research done in the construction industry is done on the designconcepts for sustainability and therefore not enough research has been done inleadership skills of the leaders in sustainable development of constructionprojects. This research has been done to build a model to study the mosteffective leadership competence in sustainable building construction to answerthe question below: Does the Leadership style of leaders Influence the success criteria forgreen building projects? Relation between sustainableconstruction and Leadership Although leadership has been outlined assuccess factor for the effective performance of an organization, there is stilllimited research on the relationship between leadership behaviour of projectmanagers and especially managers in the construction industry.
These leadersshould have the skills set to endorse a positive culture towards sustainabledevelopment. In a recent study (Hwang and Ng 2013) explored the challengers ingreen construction projects and they identified in the study the knowledgeareas and the skills that a project manager should have to meet the challengesof sustainable development. However, leadership style and competencies ofsustainable project managers needs to be further explored for their statisticalrelationship with project success criteria. Leader competencies and success criteria for sustainable Buildingprojects TheMalaysian Institute of Architects formed a Sustainability Committee which was createdprimarily to develop the Green Building Index (GBI) and the correspondingsection for authorisation and certification of green-rated buildings in August2008.
The GBI Building rating tools assess the sustainability of buildingsbased on six main criteria as demonstrated in Table 1 below. Consequently,these specific set of guidelines were employed to measure the success criteriathat project managers attained in their green building projects. The above criteria may motivatedevelopers and building users to consider the environmental quality ofbuildings and associated residents by improving site selection, access topublic transport, improving community services and improving the quality oflife.Leaders in the organization tendsto be the key driving force to endorse sustainability in the industry.Therefore, in view of the analysis, the current study targets to explore the impactof intellectual and managerial capabilities of the leader on the success of asustainable building project. Therefore: Hypothesis 1: Leader intellectual competence is positively related tothe success criteria of the projects.Hypothesis 2: Leader managerial competence is positively related to thesuccess criteria of the projects.
The application oftransformational leadership in sustainable societies is a critical area forprofessionals and researchers to come up with the local and global changesneeded for sustainable growth.Hypothesis 3: The transformational leadership behaviour of the projectmanager is positively related to the success criteria of the projects.This study assessed the leadershipbehaviour and effectiveness of the transformational leadership of projectleaders in sustainable construction projects based on work of Dulewicz andHiggs (2005) and Daft and Pirola-Merlo (2009).Sampling Theparticipants include 70 project managers from those projects which werecertified by the GBI assessment of Malaysia. Three research officers were sentto companies in various locations in major cities in Malaysia such as KualaLumpur, Penang and Johor Bahru to hand over the questionnaires to the relevantrespondents and to collect them for data analysis.
Out of all the managers 65.7percent were male and 34.3 % were women.
The percentage of different raceswere, Malay 28.6%, Chinese 64.3%, Indian 4.3% and other races 2.9%.Additionally, on experienced level of project managers 20% has 1 to 5 years ofexperience, 15.7% has 6 to 10 years of experience, and 64.3% had more than 11years of experience in the field.
Regarding level of education, 88.6% had bachelors degree of higher and11.4 percent had attained a diploma from junior college. For this study the sample size is70 project managers which were chosen from the GBI certified project managersin Malaysia.
The sample is representative, of the study population which arethe project managers of sustainable construction projects. Data CollectionFor data collection,a survey of questionnaires was distributed among the construction project managersin sustainable building projects. The questionnaires were essentially based on theScale of five measures from one (1) to five (5) depending on the level ofimportance. The researchers have notjustified their choice of data collection tool in the study. There is noevidence found of a pilot study in this study, though the researchers haveextended a previously done study on “leadership competence in sustainable constructionprojects” during this study. In my opinion one of the weaknessof the data collection method is that the results from the study can not be generalized.
The study was only carried out within the sustainable building projects in Malaysiain a specific context. The strength of the study datacollection is that it provides numerical and descriptive data which can beanalysed to understand the affect of leadership capabilities andtransformational leadership qualities on the development of sustainable constructionprojects. Data Analysis The study applies partial leastsquare (PLS) method to evaluate the hierarchal hypothetical model insustainable building projects.
To assessthe hypothesised model, Smart PLS was applied to determine the parameters ofthe model. Afterwards, nonparametric bootstrapping was applied with 200replications to obtain the standard estimate errors. The results are presented quantitivelyin terms of tables and diagrams. The study results are easy to interpret, andthey are explained in the next section of this report.Managerial CompetenceAssessment In the studythe prior research done has been extended by conceptualising the managerialcompetence as a hierarchical and reflective construct, and its relationshipwith the success criteria of project managers in their sustainable projects. Theaim was to discover how the five managerial competence factors identified byDulewicz and Higgs (2005) affect the criteria for the success of a sustainableproject. These factors include resource management, engaging communication,empowering, developing and achieving. Although each of the factor identified inmanagerial competence shows a different belief, the whole constitutes a solidbasis for the modelling of the hierarchical managerial competence in anomological network.
The degree of explained variance in this hierarchalconstruct was reflected in its components: resource management (76.9%),engaging communication (88.3%), empowering (19.
7%), developing (82.2%) andachieving (83%). All the coefficients of progression of the managerialcompetence to its components were significant at P<0.01. Here, for theconstruction of the managerial skill, CR (composite reliability) and AVE (meanvariance extracted) values ??were 0.
941 and 0.536, respectively, which aregreater than the threshold values. The table below shows results achieved fromthe study. Intellectual competenceassessment Similarly, thestudy extends intellectual competence as a hierarchical and thoughtful conceptand assesses its relation to the criteria of success of the sustainableproject. Intellectual competence was also assessed using three attributesidentified by Dulewicz and Higgs (2005).
These three factors include criticalanalysis, strategic foresight, vision and imagination, which positivelyinfluence the success criteria of a sustainable project. Each factor ofintellectual competence also reflects a unique insight, while the specifiedcomponents provide a solid basis for modelling hierarchical intellectualcompetence in a nomological network. The degree of variance explained in a hierarchalorder was reflected in its components: critical analysis (87.2%), strategicperspective (87.
6%), and vision and imagination (65.3%). All the coefficientsof progression of intellectual competence to its components were also significantat P <0.01. For intellectual competence, the CR (composite reliability) and AVE(mean variance extracted) values ??were 0.926 and 0.514, respectively, whichare greater than the threshold values.
Transformationalleadership qualities As mentionedearlier in the report, Daft and Pirola-Merlo (2009) identified twofactors of transformational leadership: develop followers into leaders andinspire followers to go beyond their personal interests. From the same book, this research also adoptedquestionnaire to measure transformational leadership qualities of projectmanagers. The data on transformational leadership qualities was attained at theteam leader level, scores were taken based on the measures defined in the book.
When developing follower’s transformational leaders Daft and Pirola-Merlo(2009) suggested that the score of 24 or higher in this dimension should beconsidered higher, the score of 18 is considered average and the score 12 or loweris considered on the lower side. The results of the study show that average fordeveloping followers into leaders was 23.98. which is on the higher side of thescale. Followers had more freedom to control their own behaviour.
These typesof transformational leaders kept their followers together and around theproject and set clear boundaries in which the disciples will be able to usetheir freedom to perform organizational tasks.In terms of inspiring followersto go beyond their personal interests, a score of 24 was high level transformationalleadership qualities. The results obtained from the surveys shows that averageof questions associated with inspiring followers to go beyond their personalinterests for the benefit of the group was 23.
94. these results show that agood consideration of inspired individuals to go beyond their own interests.The degree of variance explainedin this hierarchal concept was also echoed in its components: developingfollowers into leaders is 97.5%.
Inspiring followers to go beyond theirinterests is 96.7%. All the path coefficients from transformational leadershipto its components were also significant at p < 0.01. The compositereliability (CR) and Average variance extracted(AVE) of this second order conceptwere 0.
945 and 0.611, respectively, which are both greater than the thresholdvalues.Discussion and ConclusionThe result ofthe study shows that amongst all the attributes of leadership competences,strategic perspective (? =0.945) is the most importantfactor, followed by critical analysis (? =0.936), engaging communication(? =0.
918), achieving (? =0.906), developing (? =0.896), resource management (? =0.848),vision and imagination (? =0.796) and empowering (? =0.658) in project managers. These are validated by Dulewiczand Higgs (2005) and Muller and turner 2010. The study indicatesthat the project managers in a sustainable project shows qualities oftransformational leadership, these attributes really have a small effect on thesuccess criteria of a sustainable project.
Literature suggest thattransformational leadership qualities can be significant in a non-projectorganization where the employees are permanent, in a last lasting environmentwith no time limitation. Thus, they can engage with managers for a long periodof time.Theresearchers in the study did not compare their findings with other researchstudies. However, it can be concluded from the study that the intellectual andmanagerial skills, in addition to the transformational leadership qualities ofthe project leaders, accounted for 68.5% variance in the achievement of GBIsustainable success criteria for these projects. In addition, IQ shows thehighest ? = 0.596 in the model that is followed by MQ ? = 0.
239 which showsthat intellectual competence can play a greater role in achieving a sustainableproject. From this, it can be concluded that the intellectual competence of aleader is more important than the managerial and transformational qualities ofproject leaders in terms of sustainable achievements. Resultsfor Hypothesis: The researchers have concluded the results forthe hypothesis made in the study in the beginning. The results give astandardised beta of 0.596 from intellectual competence to the successstandards.
0.293 from the managerial competence and 0.0953 from thetransformational leadership to the success criteria.
Thus, support could be found only forHypothesis 1 and Hypothesis 2. However, for Hypothesis 3 the results show thatp value was above 0.05, and therefore, transformational leadership qualitiesdid not have a direct positive association with the success criteria in thismodel. However, the total second order R for this model was 0.
685. Figuresbelow shows the results of the study.Limitations: The study hassome limitation which can a good prospective for the future studies.
The mainlimitation was that the study was performed among project managers in greenbuilding project s in Malaysia in a specific context. Adding to that the studyis not a generalised study, as the findings are only based on small samples ofdata. Further studies can strengthen this model in green projects in differentcountries. By further research it is probable that leadership behaviour couldbe further improved by integrating other additional constructs, such assituational behaviour, emotional and social dimension in the leaders.