discovered by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch trader that lived in late 17th
century Delft. Van Leeuwenhoek was able to create a modern standards crude
lenses which were thick. The lenses were able to provide 200-fold magnification
where Leeuwenhoek used it to describe single-cellular organisms including
bacteria. He then wrote to The Royal Society in London in 1682 about the
discoveries that he had been making since 1676. He was amazed by the huge
number of small individual cells that present in the scrapings from teeth where
he called those cells as ‘animalcules’, probably the first bacteria that have ever
seen (Amyes, 2013).
Pasteur, a French microbiologist then discovered that bacteria were present in
the air and they can be introduced on particles of dust. He had done experiment
on spoiled food and beer where he noticed a large number of small, rod-shaped
bacteria were present rather than yeast cells. With the knowledge he gained
from his discoveries and discoveries of others, Germ Theory was introduced.
Germ Theory is the theory that microscopic organisms are the major causes of
diseases, where the organisms are too small to be seen by naked eyes. It was
also discovered that each individual bacterium can only causes one disease.
Bacteria are important for the survival of
plants and animals and some bacteria are also beneficial to humans. Bacteria
can be vary in terms of their size, shape, cellular and genetic
characteristics. Bacteria are among the smallest living organisms and their
structure can only be observed by using powerful electron microscope. A colour
dyeing technique known as Gram stain is used to visualize the bacteria. Hans
Christion Gram, a Danish physician was the one who developed the Gram stain in
1884, where the bacteria will be exposed to two dyes and the cells will turned
purple colour. After washing process, Gram-positive bacteria will retain the
purple colour while Gram-negative bacteria will fade into pink colour. Bacteria
can cause life threatening event in human but also can be used to create
vaccines and antibiotics (Rogers, 2011).
Antibiotics are the most commonly used
antimicrobial agent that can kill the microorganism or inhibit the microbial
growth. However, if the antibiotics are not properly used, it may causes an
adverse effect where the bacteria can resist the antibiotics. Due to the
evolution of bacteria into multi-resistant microorganism, the effectiveness of
antibiotics in inhibiting the microbial growth has reduced. Moreover, the
approach of choosing a single enzymes as the candidates for inhibition and
develop it into antimicrobial agent is not an easy matter. It has not
successful as hoped. The discovery of antimicrobial agent cannot simply start
with a novel unexploited target and proceed without considering the ability of
any inhibitor that may enter the bacterial cell which will lead to the resistance
of the bacteria to the antibiotics (Gualerzi et al., 2013). This problem has led to the increasing in cases due
to microbial infection especially wound infection. Wound infection is caused by
the infiltration of microorganism to the wound and causes damage to that area
which may lead to systemic illness and delays the healing process in that
order to solve the problem, honey, propolis and bee bread can be used as the
alternative to inhibit the growth of microorganism instead of using antibiotic.
Honey, propolis and bee bread can be used as the alternative medicine in
healing wound infection. The method of using moist wound healing had proven to
have fasten the healing process of wound (Dorai, 2012). For example, Honey has
been identified as one of the food substance that has healing properties and
recent research found that honey is effective in eliminating infections for
wide range of wounds and is fully effective against such antibiotic-resistant
bacteria (Bang et al., 2003). Research
showed that using alternative medicine in wound healing process can provide a
than antimicrobial properties, honey, propolis and bee bread also have
antioxidant properties. Heart disease is the number 1 killer in terms of diseases
and health-related problems in Malaysia. According to Department of Statistics
Malaysia (2016), heart disease still remained as the primary cause of death
among Malaysians in the past 10 years (2005-2014). Based in their findings,
there are 13.5 % of death related to ischemic heart disease or coronary heart
disease in 2014, followed by pneumonia (12.0 %), cerebrovascular disease (7.1
%), septicaemia (6.1 %) and transport accidents (5.6 %). Malaysia is ranked 57
in the world for deaths related to coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD is most
common in people aged 40 and above, however there is also risk of heart disease
to occur in the younger people aged from 20 to 30. Compared to other country,
Malaysians get heart attack at younger age than others. This has causes a huge
concern to Department of Health Malaysia. In order to decrease the cases of
heart disease in Malaysia, honey, propolis and bee bread have become the health
supplement that can help reduce the chances of getting heart disease. Honey and
propolis as well as bee bread are rich in phenolic compounds as natural
antioxidant. There are many studies conducted and it showed that regular intake
of phenolic compounds help to reduce the risk of heart disease. While for
coronary heart disease, phenolic compounds provide protective effect which
include antichrombotic, anti-ischemic, antioxidant and vasorelaxant (Khalil and
though there are many studies conducted on honey, propolis and bee bread, but
most of it was about other species of stingless bee that can be found in the
other countries. There is not much research done on the antimicrobial
properties of Trigona sp. honey,
propolis and bee bread in Malaysia. While many of the research showed a
positive result that honey, propolis and bee bread of most stingless bee
species have the antimicrobial properties as well as the antioxidant
properties, it has a high probability that the products of Trigona sp. stingless bee has the same properties as the other
stingless bee species.
study aims to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Trigona sp. honey, propolis and bee bread.
The antimicrobial properties of Trigona
sp. honey, propolis and bee bread against Escherichia coli (G-, ATTC 9027), Salmonella thyhimirium subsp Enterica
(G-, ATTC 14028), Staphylococcus
aureus subsp. Aureus (G+, ATTC
25923) and Bacillus cereus (G+, ATTC
25923) using disc diffusion method and broth microdilution method, while
antioxidant assay that will be used is DPPH. The total phenolic content and
total flavonoid content will also be conducted.
1.2 Objectives of study
identify the antimicrobial properties of Trigona
sp. honey, propolis and bee bread.
ii. To study
the antioxidant activity of Trigona sp.
honey, propolis and bee bread.
investigate the total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in Trigona sp. honey, propolis and bee bread.