Banana is one of the most important fruit which people eat to supply needs of vitamin and carbohydrates. However, many disease attack banana plantation is caused drecrease of banana production. There are many kinds of disease which attack such as Fusarium wilt, bunchy top virus, blood disease, black leaf streak, black sigatoka disease, yellow sigatoka disease and etc.
From several those disease, Fusarium wilt is the most outbreak caused damaged banana plantation in Indonesia. Futhermore, will be explained description and caused of Fusarium Wilt disease and how to control them.Firstly, Fusarium wilt disease popularly know as Panama Disease on Banana plantation caused Fusarium oxysporum (Paul et al., 2011). According to Wibowo et al.
, 2011 and Hermanto et al., 2011 Race 4 strains of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense are presented in Indonesia and may be widely distributed as it was found in Central Java, Lampung Sumatera, and East Kalimantan attacking local banana cultivars such as Pisang ambon, raja, awak , kepok , kepok kerau, raja nangka, barangan, raja and ambon hijau.
This fungus is included of soil- borne fungus, which spreading of them from soil or root contants. This fungus attack all part of banana plant like root, stem and leaf. In the other hand, many cultivars of banana susceptible on this disease. The fungus attack the roots and colonizes the xylem vessels its make water and nutrients stopped. This made fusarium wilt disease is the most caused for drecreasing production of banana plantation. The symptom of Fusarium wilt disease in Banana plantation. Early symptom of fusarium wilt disease is yellow leaf and wilt which started from the old leaf and break stem of plant.
The advanced symptoms is all of the leaf change yellow, dry and wilt then almost black in the last. Eventually the plant death, if the stem base be split will appears reddish to brown discoloration in vascular system. Secondly, how to control Fusarium wilt disease in Banana plantation. Many method to solve disease in banana plantation but in this case the method must be specific, there are with resistant cultivars and biological control. First, Resistant cultivars is cultivars which known is resistant from fusarium oxysforum with many research and experiment .
The cultivars of banana is knowing resistant from fusarium wilt is FHIA-02 (Huang et al., 2005), Giant Cavendish (Hwang & Ko, 2004). Second, with biological control with Allium sp. According to Zhang (2013), the reduced incidence of Fusarium wilt in the presence of Chinese chives could be due to the sulfur volatiles causing inhibitory effects on Foc mycelial growth and spore germination. A. tuberosum was intercropped with ‘Grande Naine’ cultivar and was able to suppress the incidence of Fusarium wilt (Nadrajah et al.
, 2016). with Trichoderma. Trichoderma is soil borne fungus which knowing as biological control for many diseases such as black red root, Rhizoctonia. Aplication of Trichoderma in banana plantation reducing patoghenity of fusarium wilt. In conclusion, fusarium wilt disease caused big damage and decrease production in banana plantation.
The caused cycle of Fusarium oxysporum must be learning research to know how to solve. In addition, integrated disease management is important to reducing that disease, hopefully banana plantation will improve the production and can supply food for people.