on Shahanum. M. S. (2013) research, traditional music is a tradition from the
past. By learning traditional music which is a compulsory education in
universities, students can apply their skills and knowledge while playing the
instruments around the community of musicians. So, with the present of formal traditional
music education in universities, the music curricular includes this traditional
music focused at preserving local music traditions. However, some of the
elements in music had from the actual context. For instance, traditional music
was being used notation in learning process but then it becoming as an issue
because traditional music orally was not emphasized.
According to Gena R. Greher, lecturers need to make music easy to
evaluate. Teachers do not have to emphasize on tests or examinations only, but
guide students to be more creative and innovative in composing and creating
songs and exploring music with more profound music. Music is a unique art and
as a music teacher should educate students about what music is actually using traditional
and non-traditional music approaches.
Lack of reading materials for music education in schools or universities
can be said to be quite limited especially if it located in the interior. This
is because they do not have enough funds to provide music-related facilities
because music is seen as an unimportant subject. The available funds are
channeled to the core subjects and are considered important. The fact that
music is so important in balancing the students’ emotions to be a spiritual,
intellectual, physical, and emotional person (Rosalind Hayes, 2015).
Next, in various music program in the
country, there have always problems about lack of money to repair the
instruments and that’s became a new problem to universities which is lack of
instruments because they can’t afford money to repair the faulty instruments.
So that the music faculty require students to rent or buy the traditional music
instruments because the price is more affordable (Jason Cato, 2011).
Moreover, lack of
interest is one of the problems faced by students in learning traditional music
because sometimes they are too over confident. Hence, it making them felt that
they know everything and have to stop practicing their instruments. Confidence
is very important for students’ growth, but over confidence is really harmful.
During holidays students are busy with other activities so they do not find
sufficient time to practice their instruments. Music students must try to
practice their instruments on a regular basis, otherwise, they won’t be able
to enhance their musical skills, which will eventually kill their interest.
That means, in order to keep their interest alive, it’s important for students
to stay connected with their instruments. Whether students play what kind of
traditional music instruments, they should keep on practicing them regularly
(Ali Sibtain Farooq Sheikh; Saman Ali Sheikh; Ahmad Kaleem; and Ahmad Waqas,
In addition, students
have the spirit of self-efficacy in subject areas, activities, or academic
tasks and the lack of confidence can reduce student motivation to produce the
best possible effort. Self-efficacy is the perception of the student on his or
her own ability for a particular academic field and should not be confused with
the value of self-esteem. Students who believe that they have the ability to accomplish
certain academic tasks, they can do the task better and have higher motivation
(Jacobs et al., 2002). However, students often dismiss their academic
performance by engaging in negative self-talk about their abilities and make
improper behavior to explain weak academic performance (Linnenbrink &
“The learning process is a complex
activity that places the motivation and the physical condition of the student
as a study” (Lyons, 2002). It has become the notion that the curriculum
and teaching have an impact on learning. However, the physical and facilitation
conditions of the school or university can affect the student’s achievement.
Colgan (2003) stated that older buildings are more vulnerable to molding and have
indoor air quality problems, but does not mean that newer buildings have no
such adverse effects. Based on the studies conducted in Virginia by Crampton et
al., (2001), it shows a different link between effective school facilities and
student achievement when factors such as socioeconomic status are controlled.
Similarly with teachers, they need a space to interact professionally to
provide meaningful services to their students and colleagues. And school
facilities also play an important role in welcoming parents and members of the
community in the educational process.
Most graduates adopt and continue to use
information taken online for their academic and research work regardless of the
importance and quality of the traditional information center as observed by
previous researchers. However, using the Internet alone does not guarantee
quality and effective information. Although the Internet has a lot of
information, its relevance, quality, and validity cannot be ignored. Based on the
study conducted by Arbib and Schor (2002), students prefer to use resources from
the Internet as opposed to library resources. As a result, the information they
get is limited and they feel that information from books in libraries is not
important and can be found on the website only.