Batteries are bottles that contains energy. If we don’t store energy we won’t have portable phones. There are many types of batteries, They depend on chemical reactions. Chemical reactions occur from 2 pieces of metal they are called electrodes and a liquid called electrolyte. Moisture inside a potato is like electrolyte. If you add metal electrodes into a potato it will make a battery. The electricity flow is called electrical current. It is measured in a unit called amperes (amps). The thing that pushes electrical currents through wires is voltage it is measured in volts. There is resistance, Resistance is measured by ohms. It’s hard to squeeze water through a small pipe but a big pipe water can go through easier. electrical circuits is a way which the electricity flows through. Circuits have millions of things to it. A battery has positive and negative on it. It is called a closed circuit. what if one wire is broken electricity cannot make its way through.that is called a open circuit. if there is a way from positive to negative that is called a short circuit.short circuits can overheat or batteries to drain quickly.in open circuits there is no current flow. currents flow in the closed circuit by the light bulb. an short circuit current flows between the battery and passes the light causing it to not light up. devices may contain more than one battery such as phones, ipads and electronic toys. they are connected in two ways parallel and series when batteries are connected to series the positive is connected to the negative from the other battery. if batteries are connected in parallel the positive batteries are connected together. how much of voltage or current depends on if it is connected to parallel or series. specific electronic devices must have specific voltage and current. like when you have a computer mouse needs AAA battery. but larger items such as a flashlight it needs AA batteries. because every device has a requirement. science buddies says ”You can measure how much voltage or current a certain number of batteries can provide by determining the batteries”. in batteries a chemical energy is transformed into electrical energy. in a potato battery electrical energy is made from two chemical reactions that happen at electrodes. which are the copper and zinc metal strips. electricity interacts with our surroundings. phones tvs almost everything. electricity is a phenomenon it occurs through nature. atoms are one of building blocks of life. Atoms have different forms such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon. if there are multiple atoms it makes a molecule that’s what build matter that we can touch, feel and smell. atoms are small that you cant see them. According to atom is about 300 picometers. A picometer is a metric unit that is one trillionth of an meter. an atom is made from electrons,protons and neutrons. a atoms must have at least one proton in it. how many protons in an atom is important. An atom with one prot4on is hydrogen and if atom has 29 protons in it thats copper.an atom 94 protons is plutonium. how you count protons is called atomic number. Electricity is flow of electric charge. a charge is matter like volume mass or density. if we want to move charge we need charge carriers. electron always carry a negative charge. but protons always stay positively charged.neutrons are neutral they have no charge at all. electrons and protons carry the same amount of charge. but they are just different types. protons and electrons they are important because it provides the means to apply a force on them. electrostatic force is called coulomb’s law it operates between charges. if you try to attract the same type together they will push away from each other. if they are opposites they can be attracted together easily. how much force acting on two charges depends on what the distance is from each other. the closer two charges get the greater the force is. either pushing or pulling.electrostatic force helps by making electrons push away other electrons and be attracted to protons. this force is part of glue that holds atoms together. and it’s also the thing that need to make electrons and charges flow.now in the present have all the tools charges flow. atoms and electrons can act as charges carriers,because every electron has a negative charge. if we can free an electron from an atom and make it move then we can create electricity. if a atomic model of a copper atom one of the elemental sources for charge flow.in each balance state copper has 29 protons in its nucleus a nucleus is a positive core of an atom. electrons orbit at certain distances.electrons are have stronger force if they are closer to the nucleus. the electrons that are further than the nucleus are called valence electrons. they have the least amount of force to escape.