Breeding of services per conception,3. Conception rate ,

 Breeding efficiency or Reproduction efficiency is aeconomic trait measures the reproducing ability of an adult animal .It is a nonheritable trait.Measuring parameters ofreproduction efficiency are 1. age at sexual maturity , 2.Number of servicesper conception,3. Conception rate , 4. Non-return rate 5.

Age at first calving, 6.Service period , 7.Calving interval.As per TOMER method the reproduction efficiencyFor cows:  ( 95-99%)Breeding efficiency = n(365)+1020  × 100            (%)                            AC+CIFor Buffaloes: (74-80%)Breeding efficiency = n(365)+1040 × 100        (%)                            AC+CI   n-number ofcalving, 365 –  Desired calving intervalin days,1020 – Desired age at first calving in days for cows, 1040- Desired age at first calving  in days for buffaloes, AC- Actual age atfirst calving in days ,CI-Sum of actual calving intervals.As per Wilcox et al, (1957) : Breeding efficiency =  365 x (n – 1)  x 100                                                                                        DWhere, N = total no. of parturitions,D = days fromfirst to last parturition    Crossbred-75 to 85 %, Buffalo – 69 to 84%1.

Age atfirst calving :It is the time between birth of an animal and its firstcalving. Age at first calving is important economic trait .Related togeneration interval .

It act as a guideline for easier culling.Indigenous cattle : 1220 days, Cross bredcattle:1011 days, Buffalo:1390 days Influencing factors fordelayed age at first calving are Delayed age at sexualmaturity, More no. of services / conception, Improper Estrous detection aids,Early embryonic death , fertilization failure, Nutrition status2.Age atsexual maturity: It is age or time at which the reproductive organ becomefunctional & reproduction may occur.(estrum & ovulation).The animalattain early sexual maturity  will havelong productive  as well as reproductive life.Heifersshow heat when they attain 50% -60% of adult body weight.     Crossbredcattle-18 months, Indigenous-20 to 28 months,Buffalo-36 to 42 months3.

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Servicesper conception:It is a actual number of services required by a female to settle. Quantitativemeasure of fertility. Normally animal may need one or more services .Generalrule: Less than 2 services per conception.Influencing factors for Services per conception are Fertilityof male ( Natural service), Quality of semen (Artificial breeding), Femalereproductive disorders.

4.Conception rate:It is Proportion of animals covered out of those bred. Confirmed throughpregnancy verification methods .

Conception rate < Non-return rate (false+). 5.Non-return rate :Proportionof animals that ,after breeding , have not shown  heat signs at the expected normal interval.

Accurateindication of  conception. Sensitivityreduced by “Gestational heat”.60 days after breeding- 70% non return.90 daysafter breeding- 60% non return   Influencingfactors for Non-return rate are Hormonal imbalance, Reproductive  disorders6.Calvinginterval: It is the Duration between two successive calvings.The totalperiod  from delivery to conception andGestation period.

Cow : 12 months ,First calf heifer : 13 months,Highproducing cow : 12 to 15 monthsInfluencing factors for calving interval are Service period, Services per conception, Nutritionalstatus , Season in case of buffalo7. Serviceperiod: Interval from calving till the animal become fit for service (firstpostpartum heat).Optimum period is 60- 90 days .Longer in high milk yielders.In suckling animals extended till weaningInfluencing factors are service period are Weaning, Managementduring pregnancy, Management during postpartum, Milk yield of animal.MANAGEMENTPRACTICES1.     OBSERVATIONS & RECORDS: Keeping record (FARM LOGBOOK) is a key operation in dairy farms. It plays major role in selectionmethods and to avoid inbreeding.

2.     OESTRUS DETECTION: Watch animals twice a day to observe heat signs .Maintain heat expectancycharts.Buffaloes are nocturnal inheat and feeble (silent) in summermonths.

Sowe can use vasectomized teaser bull for heat detection. The common heat signs are frequent bellowing, Attemptto mount on other animals not in heat,Allowing other animals tomount without attacking them( Standing heat), Reduced milk production, Frequent urination,Nudging and licking of cows,Vulva getting moist, swollenand pink,Copious clear mucus dischargefrom the vagina , Tail is slightly raised  & seen on one side of vulva.3.

HEAT DETECTION DEVICES : Chin ballmarker test ,Hormone detection kits, Ohm meter & Electrode,  Pedometer ,Vaginal temperature reduce 1°C.’Standing heat’is the best , simple indication.4. OESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION:Reduces the time requiredfor estrus detection .Helps use of AI in herds by treating them in groups5.

RIGHTTIME BREEDING / INSEMINATION: 10to 24 h from the beginning of standing heat. Buffalo should be inseminated16 to24 h from the onset of standing heat .If animals shows heatsigns at morning inseminate at evening, vice versa.

6. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION : Employcorrect AI technique( Recto-Vaginal technique).Semen deposited at body of theuterus. Assessing functional state of reproductive tract is important. Qualityof semen should be analysed.7.

PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS: 45 to 60 daysafter service animal should be checked for pregnancy .Non pregnant animalsshould be rebreed or treated accordingly.8. VETERINARY CARE: Properdeworming,vaccination and Pre & post calving management9. EARLY WEANING: Weaning right atbirth is followed in commercial farm .

It enhances the resumption of ovarianactivity and the animal get conceived before 90 days of postpartum .Moreconception rate .Reduced calving to conception interval10. HOUSING & HYGENIC MEASURE:Provide adequate space and ventilation .General sanitation programme should befollowed .

Proper disposal of manure & other excreta.    To avoidsummer stress enrich the house with sprinklers,exhaust fan,screens ,foggers,wallowing tank .11.

ADEQUATE NUTRITION: Animal should be maintainedat positive energy balance. References:Dairy bovineproduction -C.K..Thomas,N.S.R.Sastry,G.RavikiranLivestockproduction and management-N.S.R.Sastry,C.K.ThomasLarge animaltheriogenology -Robert s.youngouist, Watter r.TherfallNational DairyDevelopment BoardJournal of dairyscienceJournal ofAnimal scienceIndianveterinary journal