Breeding of services per conception,3. Conception rate ,


Breeding efficiency or Reproduction efficiency is a
economic trait measures the reproducing ability of an adult animal .It is a non
heritable trait.

Measuring parameters of
reproduction efficiency are 1. age at sexual maturity , 2.Number of services
per conception,3. Conception rate , 4. Non-return rate 5.Age at first calving, 6.
Service period , 7.Calving interval.

As per TOMER method the reproduction efficiency

For cows:  ( 95-99%)

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Breeding efficiency = n(365)+1020  × 100     


For Buffaloes: (74-80%)

Breeding efficiency = n(365)+1040 × 100


   n-number of
calving, 365 –  Desired calving interval
in days,1020 – Desired age at first calving 
in days for cows, 1040- Desired age at first calving  in days for buffaloes, AC- Actual age at
first calving in days ,CI-Sum of actual calving intervals.

As per Wilcox et al, (1957) : Breeding efficiency =  365 x (n – 1)  x 100


Where, N = total no. of parturitions,D = days from
first to last parturition

-75 to 85 %, Buffalo – 69 to 84%

1.Age at
first calving :It is the time between birth of an animal and its first
calving. Age at first calving is important economic trait .Related to
generation interval .It act as a guideline for easier culling.

Indigenous cattle : 1220 days, Cross bred
cattle:1011 days, Buffalo:1390 days


Influencing factors for
delayed age at first calving are Delayed age at sexual
maturity, More no. of services / conception, Improper Estrous detection aids,
Early embryonic death , fertilization failure, Nutrition status

2.Age at
sexual maturity: It is age or time at which the reproductive organ become
functional & reproduction may occur.(estrum & ovulation).The animal
attain early sexual maturity  will have
long productive  as well as reproductive life.Heifers
show heat when they attain 50% -60% of adult body weight.

cattle-18 months, Indigenous-20 to 28 months,Buffalo-36 to 42 months

3. Services
per conception:
It is a actual number of services required by a female to settle. Quantitative
measure of fertility. Normally animal may need one or more services .General
rule: Less than 2 services per conception.

Influencing factors for Services per conception are Fertility
of male ( Natural service), Quality of semen (Artificial breeding), Female
reproductive disorders.

4.Conception rate:
It is Proportion of animals covered out of those bred. Confirmed through
pregnancy verification methods .Conception rate < Non-return rate (false+).  5.Non-return rate :Proportion of animals that ,after breeding , have not shown  heat signs at the expected normal interval. Accurate indication of  conception. Sensitivity reduced by "Gestational heat".60 days after breeding- 70% non return.90 days after breeding- 60% non return    Influencing factors for Non-return rate are Hormonal imbalance, Reproductive  disorders 6.Calving interval: It is the Duration between two successive calvings.The total period  from delivery to conception and Gestation period. Cow : 12 months ,First calf heifer : 13 months,High producing cow : 12 to 15 months Influencing factors for calving interval are Service period, Services per conception, Nutritional status , Season in case of buffalo 7. Service period: Interval from calving till the animal become fit for service (first postpartum heat).Optimum period is 60- 90 days .Longer in high milk yielders. In suckling animals extended till weaning Influencing factors are service period are Weaning, Management during pregnancy, Management during postpartum, Milk yield of animal. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES 1.     OBSERVATIONS & RECORDS: Keeping record (FARM LOG BOOK) is a key operation in dairy farms. It plays major role in selection methods and to avoid inbreeding. 2.     OESTRUS DETECTION: Watch animals twice a day to observe heat signs .Maintain heat expectancy charts. Buffaloes are nocturnal in heat and feeble (silent) in summer months. So we can use vasectomized teaser bull for heat detection. The common heat signs are frequent bellowing, Attempt to mount on other animals not in heat,Allowing other animals to mount without attacking them ( Standing heat), Reduced milk production, Frequent urination,Nudging and licking of cows, Vulva getting moist, swollen and pink, Copious clear mucus discharge from the vagina , Tail is slightly raised  & seen on one side of vulva. 3. HEAT DETECTION DEVICES : Chin ball marker test ,Hormone detection kits, Ohm meter & Electrode,  Pedometer ,Vaginal temperature reduce 1°C. 'Standing heat' is the best , simple indication. 4. OESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION: Reduces the time required for estrus detection .Helps use of AI in herds by treating them in groups 5. RIGHT TIME BREEDING / INSEMINATION: 10 to 24 h from the beginning of standing heat. Buffalo should be inseminated16 to 24 h from the onset of standing heat .If animals shows heat signs at morning inseminate at evening, vice versa. 6. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION : Employ correct AI technique( Recto-Vaginal technique).Semen deposited at body of the uterus. Assessing functional state of reproductive tract is important. Quality of semen should be analysed. 7. PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS: 45 to 60 days after service animal should be checked for pregnancy .Non pregnant animals should be rebreed or treated accordingly. 8. VETERINARY CARE: Proper deworming ,vaccination and Pre & post calving management 9. EARLY WEANING: Weaning right at birth is followed in commercial farm .It enhances the resumption of ovarian activity and the animal get conceived before 90 days of postpartum .More conception rate .Reduced calving to conception interval 10. HOUSING & HYGENIC MEASURE: Provide adequate space and ventilation .General sanitation programme should be followed .Proper disposal of manure & other excreta.     To avoid summer stress enrich the house with sprinklers,exhaust fan,screens , foggers,wallowing tank . 11.ADEQUATE NUTRITION: Animal should be maintained at positive energy balance.   References: Dairy bovine production -C.K..Thomas,N.S.R.Sastry,G.Ravikiran Livestock production and management-N.S.R.Sastry,C.K.Thomas Large animal theriogenology -Robert s.youngouist, Watter r.Therfall National Dairy Development Board Journal of dairy science Journal of Animal science Indian veterinary journal