Cancer immunological test diagnostic marker, prognostic marker/ predictive

Cancer
is abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts
of the body, Biomarker are
Measured and evaluated as indicator of normal biological process, pathogenic
process, or pharmacological response to a therapeutic intervention, Characteristic
of Ideal biomarker expression should significantly increase in disease
condition  Readily quantifiable in
clinical sample It should be economically viable Tumor marker is a Biochemical substances
produced by cancer cell or by the healthy cell It’s a Substances  found at higher level than normal level  in cancerous condition, which differentiate
the normal cell from cancer cells  Tumor
marker seen in Blood circulation, Body
cavity fluids  Cell membrane ,Cell
cytoplasm Tumor marker  classification
Tumor Specific Antigens  Specific
for single individual tumor, present only in tumor cells Ex:CEA,CA19-9,CA125
Tumor-Associated Antigens are Found with different tumor of same tissue
type Present on tumor cells and some normal cells Expressed at abnormal
concentration when presence of cancer Ex: Prostate specific antigen, Beta HCG,AFP
L3,thryglobin ,Enzyme 1st group identified as a biomarker  Hormone used to detect and monitor the
cancer Onco-fetal protein AFP,CEA,PSA, using anti-sera against cancer tissue cell
surface antigen are CA 125,CA15-3,CA19-9 Blood group Ag using monoclonal
antibody detect cancer cell according to site tumor marker classification as Biochemical
/serological marker-detected in blood or body fluids, histochemical/ tissue
marker- in tissue by immunological test diagnostic marker, prognostic marker/
predictive marker, therapeutic marker clinical use Screening, diagnosis, prognostic predictor  clinical
staging of the cancerous condition
for monitoring during treatment early
detection for recurrence CHARACTERISTICS OF AN IDEAL TUMOUR MARKER Should
not be very costly, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, simple to
use CEA -Lung, breast, Colorectal
cancer, AFP- Hepato cellular carcinoma,
Germ cell tumor, HCG – Germinal  cell
tumor of  testis, Ovarian adenocarcinoma,
Hepatoma, chorio carcinoma, CA 125- Ovarian carcinoma, calcitonin- Medullary thyroid cancer, CA15-3/ CA27.29- Breast cancer, Liver, colon, ovarian endometrial
cancer, Prostate specific antigen -Prostate cancer, Thyroglobulin-Thyroid
cancer, 21-Gene
signature(oncotype-Dx),70-Gene signature(mammaprint),Estrogen receptor/
progesterone receptor- breast, Cytokeratin  fragments21-1- Non small cell Lung cancer,breast cancer,
Insulin-Insulinoma(beta cell tumor),Cortisol/ACTH- Equine pars intermedia adenoma, adreno cortical
tumor, Sex steroid hormone- Adeno carcinoma, Methods of detection of tumor
marker are immunological Immuno histochemistry, Radioimmuno assay,ELISA, Cytogenetic analysis – Fluorescent insitu hybridization,Spectral
karyotyping,Comparative genomic hybridization, Genetic analysis,proteomics- Surface 
enhanced laser desorption/ionization, IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY- By linking the antibodies to a dye, The immunoreactivity between the tissue specimens
and antibodies can be visualized with the light microscope, commonly used to
characterize tumors of epithelial origin are antibodies directed against the
cytokeratin intermediate filaments,Epithelium-Specific cytokeratins used as diagnostic
markers that detect change in cytokeratin expression as a consequence,Cytokeratin
6 is present in all epithelial skin tumors Cytokeratin immunostaining – used to
detect micro-metastases in lymph nodes of dogs with mammary gland carcinoma

•     
. CYTOGENETICS structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes G-banded
chromosomes,other cytogenetic banding techniques, molecular cytogenetics:
fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH),comparative genomic hybridization
(CGH),proteomics,genomics,metabolomics- fucosylated proteins, including CD44 and
E-selectin-elevated in dogs with lymphoma With the completion of the sequencing
of the canine genome, a microarray is being developed to study the changes in
tumor gene expression in canine tumors.Methods of discovery:genomic approach:Northern
blot-RNA sequencing,Gene expression technique,DNA micro array.Protomic
approach:Tissue micro array,Antibody array,2D PAGE. Metabolomic approach:  Analysing metabolic response to drug or
disease.Lipidomic approach:analysis of lipids.

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•     
. CYTOGENETICS structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes G-banded
chromosomes,other cytogenetic banding techniques, molecular cytogenetics:
fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH),comparative genomic hybridization
(CGH),proteomics,genomics,metabolomics- fucosylated proteins, including CD44 and
E-selectin-elevated in dogs with lymphoma With the completion of the sequencing
of the canine genome, a microarray is being developed to study the changes in
tumor gene expression in canine tumors.Methods of discovery:genomic approach:Northern
blot-RNA sequencing,Gene expression technique,DNA micro array.Protomic
approach:Tissue micro array,Antibody array,2D PAGE. Metabolomic approach:  Analysing metabolic response to drug or
disease.Lipidomic approach:analysis of lipids.

 

•     
. CYTOGENETICS structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes G-banded
chromosomes,other cytogenetic banding techniques, molecular cytogenetics:
fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH),comparative genomic hybridization
(CGH),proteomics,genomics,metabolomics- fucosylated proteins, including CD44 and
E-selectin-elevated in dogs with lymphoma With the completion of the sequencing
of the canine genome, a microarray is being developed to study the changes in
tumor gene expression in canine tumors.Methods of discovery:genomic approach:Northern
blot-RNA sequencing,Gene expression technique,DNA micro array.Protomic
approach:Tissue micro array,Antibody array,2D PAGE. Metabolomic approach:  Analysing metabolic response to drug or
disease.Lipidomic approach:analysis of lipids.